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Interview with Peter Moreno




Pete Moreno was born Oct. 6, 1924, in Renville, Minn., moved with his family to St. Paul in 1925 and has lived in Minnesota his entire life. He has worked with a housing authority and the Ramsey County Office of Equal Opportunity, and at the time of the interview is state director of federal Migrant Education Program for children. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED: Experience in government agencies - goals, philosophies and activities of the Migrant Education Program - and directions in which the program is moving.





World Region






This interview was conducted as part of a series on the Mexican American in Minnesota. Pete Moreno was born October 6, 1924 in Renville, lhnnesota. all his life. Right now he is \\forking with the Migrant Education Program. Nr. Moreno gives us his background experience in Government Agencies that he brings with him to his post. He also tells the goals, philosophies, and activities of the program and the direction in 'Vlhich he believes the program is moving. This is a transcript of a tape-recorded interview edited to aid in comprehension for the reader. Visual Library of the Minnesota Historical Society. larity and ease of He has lived in J,:innesota

He has worked for the Housing Authority, and the Ramsey County OEO Program.

The original tape recording is available in the Audio-

INTERVIEW WITH PETER MORENO August 6, 1976 Moosbrugger: This is Grant Moosbrugger, interviewing Mr. Peter Moreno, the Director of Migrant Education, for the Minnesota Department of Education. August 6, 1976. Today is

I am interviewing you for the Minnesota Historical Society, Do I have your permission to interview

Mexican American History Project. you? Moreno: Moosbrugger: Certainly. When and where were you born?

Can you tell us a little of your background

of your personal life; and the experience you bring to this position? Moreno: I am fifty-two years old. I was born October 6, 1924 in Renville, Minnesota. The year I was born, my folks were That year they decided We worked sugar beets

I have lived in Minnesota all my life.

working sugarbeets in Renville with my grandparents. to settle down in St. Paul, and work out of St. Paul. until I was sixteen or seventeen years old. Moosbrugger: Moreno: Moosbrugger: Moreno:

Have you lived in St. Paul, since you were sixteen or seventeen? I have lived in St. Paul since I was a year old. What is your background in working with governmental jobs? I have been with the Housing Authority for a}9ut a year. I was placed on I worked

an assignment, to help get the Ramsey County OED Program going.

very close with that particular project, on a loan basis, from the Housing Authority. It was so closely related to what we were doing. I was offered a position as a

Funding for that program came through. target area representative.

They wanted someone of Mexican American As well as, over in the public housing

descent to work on the West Side. areas. I took the position.

About a year after, there was a vacancy in

the Deputy Directorship.

I applied for the position and was appointed by I held

the board, as a Deputy Director of the Ramsey County OED Program. that position for about three and one half years.

At that point, I was

asked to consider taking a position with the Governor's Office of Economic

-2Opportunity. It was a move, from the county level, to the state level. I


took that position, because I wanted more experience at the state government level. I took that position in February of 1970. I was with the Govenor's During the

Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), until this past year. time I was with the OEO, I was a field-representative.

I was considered I was responShortly

as a technical advisor, to the community action agencies.

sible for seven agencies across the southern part of the state.

after I got on the Board, I was given an assignment, or a responsibility as the liasion person with the Migrant Program. Migrants Incorporated. were doing. At that time, it was

The position was more or less, monitoring what they Within a few months

There was no official task of any kind.

after that, the program went bankrupt. then.

We didn't have the Migrant Program,

Some decision had to be made, on what should be done with certain I

aspects of that migrant program, namely the Migrant Headstart Program. was involved in determining what the future was of the Migrant Headstart Program. About six months after that, I was visited by a representative

of the Washington Office, Migrant Division of OEO, about the prospect of developing another migrant organization, here in the state of Minnesota. I became involved in getting a group together, to formulate or be the basis nucleus of a new migrant program, which is now the Minnesota Migrant Council. At that point, my job description was re-written completely, and I was taken out of

I was assigned as the migrant program specialist.

community action work and assigned totally to migrant work. Moosbrugger: Moreno: This would have been about what year? I believe it was 1971. migrant programs. My sole responsibilities then were working with

The conclusion that I had come to, and had convinced

my director of, was the fact that the biggest problem we had with migrant programs and migrant services from the state level, was a lack of coordination. There were a lot of services available, but not much was being

-3Moreno: done in terms of inter-agency coordination or cooperation. I think a

classic example, was the Department of Public Welfare, that had a daycare program; a food stamp program; and a few other services. or section, never knew what the other one was doing. who it was, or who was involved. One division,

They didn't even know You can

This was within one department.

imagine what it was on an inter-departmental basis. these agencies together:

My job was to get

divisions, sections, department, whatever; to try

to develop a more coordinated effort towards providing services to migrants. We worked very closely together. My contention at that point, was that the

real problem, was the fact that there should be, and there was not, an office, at the Govenor's Office level, that should be performing that kind of function, that is to coordinate services for migrants, at the state level, on a more formal basis. Things developed. It took about three years

to finally develop and convince people that such a need could be fulfilled by developing an office of that type, and the office came into being. that point, I was transfered from the Govenor's OEO program, At

to the De-

partment of Administration, as a migrant Consultant, to help get the program off the ground.
As the program developed, I

felt my services could

be better used elsewhere. had become a reality.

The position of Director of Migrant Education,

I applied for the position, because to me, education I thought of it as a top priority of That is what I am

has always been very close to me. migrant services. doing now. Moosbrugger:

I was appointed on July 16, 1975.

Could you give as some of the background of this program? funding come from? Who are you answerable to?

Where does the

How much latitude do you Whose

have in tailor-making your program to fit the needs of the people? needs do you meet? Moreno:

The funding of this program comes from Title One, "Elementary-Secondary Education Act." Under amended law of 1965, this migrant title one was

-4Moreno: created. Under regular title one, the original law, there was provision

of providing services to the culturally and educationally disadvantaged children. Like so many other programs, it was brought out, that those In this par-

who needed the program the most, were not receiving them.

ticular case, it was brought out, that migrant children, were in dire need of this kind of a program. They were not receiving this kind of service.

Consequently, the amended law of 1965, which specifically pointed out that a certain portion of the Title One funds would be allocated towards migrant education. The group was very specifically spelled out by definition. The

monies were allocated on a formula basis, based on the number of migrantagricultural workers in a state, at a given time. This is formulated then throug

through the bureaucratic systems up on the Washington level, to come out with some kind of money allocation. Because of the reporting procedures

that were used by various states, Minnesota was consistently funded in a very low level. It was only because of the inaccuracy of the head count That has been changed with It's

of the number of migrant workers in the state.

the new system, which was develop in the last three or four years. called the Migrant Student Record Trar.sfer System: computerized system.

Which is a nationally Congres-

With a data bank in Little Rock, Arkansas.

sional mandate now says that funding to states will be allocated based on the number of children that are being served and enrolled in the state on the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. Consequently, the funding For

level for the state of Minnesota this year has gone up considerably. example, in 1975 the funding allocation for Minnesota was $510,535.00. I was recently given notice, that our funding allocation for the 1977 program will be in the vicinity of 976,000.00, plus!

You can see that a

considerable amount of work has been done to identify the number of children we have enrolled here in the Migrant Student Transfer System. I think, more

specifically, the emphasis can be seen, by the fact that in 1974, based on

-5Moreno: the enrollment figures, we serve something like 2,575 children in the program. In 1975, we had on record 4,333 children actually enrolled in the You can see the difference, or change that took place by emphasis Our rough figures


on identification and recruitment of migrant children. have already come in. for this year, 1976.

We have something like a little over 4,500 students We anticipate an even greater number for next year.

We have already been told there will be an increase in the sugar beet acreage. Anytime there is an increase in sugar beets acreage, you can rest We anticipate that by 1980, we should

assured there will be more workers.

have a considerably increase in migrant workers due to the fact that, there will be another sugar refinery being constructed, in the Red River Valley area, somewhere in the vicinity of Thief River Falls. about fifty to sixty thousand new acres of sugar beets. calls for another twelve to fourteen hundred workers. They are talking We estimate that If you use the gen-

era1 form, it's 5.7 children per family, you get an idea of how many children we can anticipate as an increase, by 1980. Moosbrugger: Those families and children who you serve, are here on a seasonal basis, is that right? Moreno: Right. They get to Southern Minnesota, about mid-April. That is the

asparagus area, its an early crop. about mid-May. gone.

The sugar beet workers arrive here,

By mid-July, or the latter part of July, most of them have

However, some of them stay to work other crops in Southern Minnesota.

Some of them stay to prepare for the harvesting of the sugar beets, in the fall and truck driving or whatever, things of that type. Not all of them

leave, but there is a considerable reduction in the number of people who stay. Moosbrugger: Do you have to go on serving and having programs, for those children who stay later in the year? Moreno: We are very limited on what we can do with that grant, because of the money




For example, our program was scheduled to start this year, on They were completed on the seventeenth of July. First

the seventh of June.

of all, we do that, because there are funding limitations. are physical limitations. By physical, I mean buildings.

Secondly, there The program can

not start much earlier than the seventh of June, or the first week of June. The regular school programs don't leave their buildings until the end of May. It usually takes a little bit of time to get a program started. We

try to get going as early as we can.

Although, actually, if we were to do

this program on the basis of the arrival of migrants, we really should start the programs about m'id-May. which we can start these programs. vacated. that time.

We don't have any physical plants in We have to wait until the school is Money seems to be running out about

We terminate about mid-July.

However, there are migrant children around for a considerable Not having money and personnel, it's difficult to run

time after that. a program. Moosbrugger:

We are kind of hamstrung, in that respect.

If you had the money and the personnel, would you be able to start deve1oping programs for serving the children, whose fami1es settle out of the


migrant stream? that every year.

I know there are a certain number of migrants that do


Well, what we do for those children who settle out of the migrant stream, what that really means is that they are going to get into the regular school system in September. happened. Minnesota. Last year, we had three site areas, where such a thing

We had some children down in Owatona; Litchfield; and Kennedy, Litchfield had the largest number. We found that there were

about thirty children out there, who were in the regular school program, and had definite language problems. We were able to get together with the It was a tutorial

administrators out there, and develop a small program. program:

a pullout type, where the tutor would take these children for an

-7Moreno: hour or two during the day. She would rotate it among four schools. She

was able to provide enough assistance to these children, so they could begin achieving at a fairly good level, or equal level to their peers. was not an expensive program. very successful project. It

It really was a pilot proj,ect, but it was a

I see more and more of that activity begining to

take place as these children are settling out, and getting into the regular school system. We don't know how many others there are, that have settled I am sure that there

out, in small numbers scattered throughout the state. are some around.

Obviously, there are some, because we know every year The largest number settle here in the Twin City We have been working with the St. Paul

some families settle out.

area, St. Paul and Minneapolis.

School District, to identify the number of children that have settled out, in the last five years. Although, we have not yet done that completely,

out of those children; I believe it was 167 that were identified; how many need this kind of assistance, we don't know yet. Moosbrugger: Moreno: Moosbrugger: Moreno: Just primarily language assistance? Primarily language programs, yes. Its a language development program. Not everyone of them does.

Do you think these children have any other )specific needs? Yes, I do. I think that the cultural shock that comes with changing from It could have a I think it requires

one cultural enviroment to another, is rathe·r severe. detrimental affect on the child's learning abilities.

a change in the regular school program, where these children are enrolled, that would take into consideration the child's cultural backgroung as well as the his language. Of course, this takes a special kind of a teacher.

Not'every teacher can teach that particular system, or within that system. We are emphasizing, .to the school system, that if we are to get involved in this kind of a program, there are certain criteria that we would expect them to adhere to, or take into consideration in developing their program.

-8Moreno: Moosbrugger: One of them, is being a strong cultural program, as well as language. At this time, I suppose it's a matter of funding, and developing of cooperation? Moreno: We aren't sure yet, in terms of monies grant. of carryover monies that we are going to have. I don't know yet what kind I have already been inI am

formed in what kind of funding level we can expect for next year. sure that we don't have enough money. program.

I know, what it cost for a summer

We have to take into consideration that our first priority, or Our directors tell

first mandate is the current active in-stream migrant. us, if our funds are available. out migrant. consideration.

Then we can provide services to the settled

The in-stream active migrant is the first we have taken into Therefore, we are told that we can provide educational serNot to the detriment of the active in-

vices to the settle-out migrant. stream migrant. summer programs.

We know pretty well what our budget figures are for the I have to go over all the budget figures to see what, if That we could put into a pro-

anything, is available beyond those amounts. gram such as is being offered. St. Paul. Moosbrugger:

Or being propose here for the city of

Right now, I don't know what that amount is. What

Tell us how this state division plays a role in developing programs?

kind of input are you able to have from your office here in guiding the direction for those programs for migrants? Moreno: Across the country, the Migrant Educational Program, has a very unique position. Contrary to other programs, where the department or section only, This

provides technical assistant, or consultation, or advisory roles. particular office actually administers the program.

By administers, I mean If they will even

we have the say-so, the final approval on funding levels. be funded.

The final approval on staff selection, the criteria for program If we approve fine, if we don't approve we don't

development; the whole bit.

-9Moreno: don't fund. So, its a unique position this program has. That is one of

the mandates of the U.S. Office of Education.

In terms of program develA state plan

opment, the role that we have here is to develop a state plan.

is to meet criteria that is handed down to us by the U.S. Office of Education. They have a very stringent criteria that we must follow. So that any pro-

gram we develop must fit this pattern of regulation requirements, that are handed down by the U.S. Office of Education. The way we do this, is to

approach the school districts where we are going to be conducting programs. Based on past experience; input from parent advisory councils that we have through the program years. To develop the kind ,of program that will meet Doing needs assessment for

specific assessed needs of this migrant child. the migrant children is a federal mandate.

We dpn't just simply pull It must be deWe have

material out of the clear blue sky to write up a program.

signed to meet the particualr problems of these migrant children. to have a written proposal for each project. to us for review and approval.

The proposal must be submitted

Upon approval, we will allocate funds to Once the program

that particular achool district for conducting a program. is appro Jed, we take the role of monitoring. and pre-service training. and the appropriate staff. of these migrant students.

We provide in-service training

We do evaluations along with the project director We supervise the identification and recruitment To make sure that we tap into every family, we

do as much as we can to encourage a family to get their children into school. We pretty much have the total say-so in how that program is conducted.

We try to make at least two site visits to every school during a program period. schedule. This is a period of six to ten weeks. This is what I shoot for as a goal. More if possible. That makes a pretty tight No less than two visits,

during the program year. Moosbrugger:

This would be how many school districts?

-10Moreno: There are sixteen school districts allover the state. They are from the

southern part of the state all the way to the north western corner of the state, up in the River Valley area. Its a long distance. That is one of

our biggest problems that we have, distance. kind of contact. Moosbrugger: Moreno: What is your team like that you go out with?

We still try to maintain that

I have a curriculum consultant and a supervisor of identification and recruitment. We are also responsible for the student record transfer system.

I have a base terminal operator here, who has been trained at the Base Terminal in Little Rock, Arkansas, whom I use to oversee the activities of all the terminal operators; the record clerks, in all the out state areas where we have projects. We maintain a pretty close contact through out the

program, with the person in the out state area. Moosbrugger: It is the responsibility of the school district to come in with a proposal to you? Are they suppose to fulfill the needs of the children of the migrant

families in their area? Moreno: Yes. I think we go even further than that. A little while ago I mentioned

advisory councils.

By mandate, we are suppose to have at leaJt one advisory

council on a state basis, to receive input into the development of the program. We go further than that, we have an advisory council in each of the They are

sixteen projects, so we have sixteen parent advisory councils. very active, contrary to what others may say.

Parents are very interested

and concern in what their children are learning in school.and what is going on in the school. Realizing this, we want their input. If they don't feel

that we are doing the job for their children, then what is the purpose of having a program. Moosbrugger: These are primarily migrant parents? have been around for a long time? Moreno: Migrant parents. We encourage the residents of the area to come in:too. They are not established people that



But we do encourage even more, the parents of these participating children, they are the ones that we want to talk to. to say. We want to hear what they have

I guess, basically, there's two different attitudes, two different If you live in the community as Since the program is designed

kinds of outlooks on an education program. against just passing through the community. for children who are passing through.

It's just the parent input from those At least twice a year, when the

children that we are really concern with.

migrants are back in their home state, and the children are back in their home school, most of them are in Texas. We go down to Texas as a group.

Representatives of the Migrant Education Section, Titled I, the community council for the Migrant Headstart and Day Care program. propriate staff from each program. There is an ap-

They go down and visit with a group of We set that up by

parents whose children participated in our program.

or with the Texas Migrant Council and the Texas Health Program personnel. We call them and tell them that on such a date we would like to go down and would they contact about fifteen families that will be coming to Minnesota to meet with us to discuss the education program.

They are fully aware of

our program and they can give us a good in sight, from their point of view of how good the education program is. as against "real needs." they see as needs. stong changes. Translating that into "felt needs",

How we might develop the program to fulfill what

With their reactions, we can C:0me up with some pretty

As an example, last year the parents were concerned because They wanted to know

they felt their children weren't getting enough to eat. if the children could go for seconds. there was a change in the menu.

Even more then that, not too long ago,

The kids were saying they wanted some beans, The menu was changed to incorporate

tortillas, and tacos once in a while. that kind of meal.

At least once a week they get that kind of meal, deAlso we felt that to make

pending on how long the food supplies last.

-12Moreno: Mexican food, you should have Mexican cooks, so we hired people from the migrant stream to work in the kitchen. Moosbrugger: Are you funded seperately, do you get to plug in the existing school budget for food allotments? Moreno: The food money is part of the regular year-round food allocation to the school district. It's just a continuation of special feeding programs. In

this case, the summer feeding program was nothing more than an extension of what was being done in the regular year. It was not a cost to us.

Anyway, using this kind of input from the parents, we develop our programs. Before we get ready to write the whole program, we make our second trip to Texas. We meet with the same parents, if at all possible. We say to them: Here is how we

"here is what you said to us the last time we were here." are going to write up this program. we make whatever changes they say. final proposal. Moosbrugger: Moreno: This procedure then is intended to be a yearly process? Its a year-round process. six to ten weeks.

If they agree, we write it up, if not The next time we write it, will be the

Although the program only provides services for

Depending on the location of the program.

Our actual

funds here are on a year-round basis.

People thought that since the program I

is for six to ten weeks, we don't need the kind of staff that we have. wasn't too sure at first. ference in the let-up, yet.

Having been here a year, I haven't seen the difThere is an awful lot of planning that takes Once the program gets

place, which is necessary to develop this program.

going, its so high pressured that we don't have time for planning. Moosbrugger: The impact of a good six or eight week course, can be far greater, then a poorly plan and

year-round program.

I think that we have seen

that happened time and time again. fleet the needs.

It its poorly planned and doesn't

-13Moreno: I agree with that, Grant. We realize that we are here to provide a special These children face problems that are very I can't imagine anyone not being able to

kind of an educational service. pertinent with their life style.

understand these problems, that could do a justifiable job. I personalized this thing to much, maybe, because of my own personal life; or my experiences in my childhood. Of leaving school early because you had to work in the Leaving school before you could take your Going back to school

fields, then returning back late.

tests to find out whether or not you past your grade.

too late in the semester to be with your classmates, and going backwards in school. I went through that situation and never finished the tenth grade.

I couldn't take my tests and I just to the_point, where I was getting too far behind in my class. so I quit school. I decided that there just wasn't any use in trying,

Reflecting back, I just can't imagine any kind of program I can't understand why any student would have to I guess I committed myself to the-point where

than, that we have now.

go through that experience.

we will do everything we can to provide the kind of service that is necessary to see that a child is educated edequately. To that point also, I've

come to the conclusion, along with many of my working associates, that one group that we are failing with is the secondary level group. providing an educational service for the secondary level age. we talk about encouraging students to stay in school. We are not Even though,

The one level that Recently, we The six We

we should really be working with, we are not even touching I held

in Texas, because of the concern of Region Five.

states in Region Five.

That we are not serving this particular level.

met with the people in Texas from ten different school districts.

The Texas

Education Agency and other personnel from their school districts, to talk about how we could get together in coordenation and conjunction with their educational systems in Texas, to provide secondary level education. This is

for teenagers that are up here and can attend night school for a couple of

-14::oreno: hourc.

1;le miCht transfer credits that are accumulated here, that will We were pleasantly surThey would accept any They \'lere willinc to do anythinG

be creditted towards their high school education. prised by the attitude that Texas had. possible to coordinate with our programs up here. in any particular course. If:oosbrugger: Moreno:

transcript we send to Texas, indicating the completion of a particular unit He are really encouraced by their attitude towards coordination between our six state Region Five and Texas. Is that the IfJinnesota, and Dakotas? Ninnesota, Hisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois. closely together. formation. He are receivinc <!lata from Texas. He work very We are in the process of developinc our statistical inI have already received data

from one particular school district which identifies by name, those students who are at the secondary age level that will be coming to Einnesota next year. 11e will start pin-pointing the school sites \-lhere we can develop I think, that is another indication night classes for the secondary level.

of the kind of commitment that we have within these programs, the necessary changes that will take place to really do an adequate job in educating the migrant childre~. Noosbrugger: Don"t you think ' its going to take a terrific ,amount of commitment on the part of the high school, where youth have to put in a very hard day of physical labor in the fields, and then get themselves to night school? l,ioreno: Yes, but I think that we have short-changed these young kids an a\-lful lot of times. If you think back, "1hen you were 16 years old, you probably had I could go out and work a full day There has been a pilot It a lot of energy to burn, I kn01-l I did.


then go out and get in the car and party it up all night long, get home in time to chanee clothes and go out and '-lork again. started out with fifty kids. succesful program. of i1ashington. project already tested, proven, and funded in the state of Hashineton. of time, that program has gr01-len to over 500 students.

This is about three years ago, in that period Its a fantastically Ky It is

I know the director of the migrant program in the state It has already been

I fe 1t his enthusiasm about the success of the program.

contention is, we don't have to re-invent the wheel.

done, lets piggy-back, to modify it to our use, to our regional area. secondary level children is,that they want to finish school. finish school given the opportunity. envening school, say from They will

a difficult thing to do, but I can't help feeling that the attitude of the I don't think that two hours in the

7 to 9 o'clock, is a long time, even after 12 or
I think that it is going to be Our job to con-

14 hours out in the field.

vince them, that this is strictly a plus for them for whatever leneht of time they are here. They can work up oc-number of units, that will be

-15Eoreno: applied tOHards hiGh school education. hiC'h school earlier. can do it. Moosbruccer: l',oreno: Terrific! The children you have been serving in the past year, hOi'l long has It ,,,as the services been provided in this department? This department has been providinG a riJiC'rant ProGram since 1967. kind of a segment of the

Some of them micht even .:;et out of Like

I think that is a se1line job we have to do.

any other of our proerams, we have to sell it to our people, and I think we

Title One Program.

It didn't have a staff,

except in a part time basis, because they always seem to have priorities that were greater than the !,;igrant Program.
It took about three or four years to

convince the department that l,:innesota couldn't do a creditable job, it was more of a discredit, based on what was being done in other states. I guess that \vas the technique I was using '-Then I was Horking with the govenor's 030 program, and '!-,hen I was working Hi th all kinds of agencies, this '!-laS probably the hardest one, but I '-Tas convince that the education program is by far the most important service we can provide for children, if we are goinG to do anything with them in their future.

contention vlaS that only

by getting the program visability and assigning a full time staff, could they really do enough to bring this program up to the level l·:innesota should have. 1,Iinnesota has a good reputat ion for all kinds of services. Certainly a progresive state in the area of education. adequate staff. Moosbrugger: Koreno: l'lhat ages have you been serving? cally, we can serve from five to seventeen. children from six to fourteen.

But, in the area of migrant

education, ''le ''lere "lay behind and that was only because we didn't have

The program is designed to serve from six to seventeen years old.


The program actually serves This last year, unfortu-

After they are fourteen years old, they can

be out in the fields, and that is where they go.

nately, our legislative activity reduced that minimum '\-'lorking 'age to t1'lelve. I can't imagine a twelve year old working out in the fields, when he should be in school. }loosbrugger: At any rate, you are picking up any slack in the education of the older children, by making your efforts and developing your plans of offer evening school? l·:oreno: I have had this as one of my objectives for quite sometime. felt that we are really doing a dis-service at this level. determine an awful lot of the activities. just don't do anything. I have ahlays But again, funds

If you don't have the funds, you

I am very encouraged after our federal program

-16roreno: revieH, that there Hill be funds available and I am even more encoura.::;ed after our meetinG Hith the state of Texas and the results of the r.18etinG' The U. S. Office of !-1i(3'rant Educat ion, l!}iGrant Division, Hi 11 do everythinc they can to see if Reeion Five \'lill have adequate funds to conduct this kind of program. IToosbrug;-er: !loreno: ';1hat is your general philosophy to make this kind more successful? One has to believe that proerams of this type, are people type proer.ams. You don't have a program, if you don't have people involved. I guess, because of my OEO training, backGround, and basic philosophy, I feel if people don't accept anything, you can't ram it dovm their throat, if you ram it dOlm their throat, they .\Till only resent it. Hmvever in this case, He can move our proGrams around to any place that ''le "Tant, the place Hhere He ''fish. Before He place a program, He do a lot of public relations vlork prior to introducing a project. He select the site, then He approach the board, as many croups, church and school groups, committees, anYl"lhere He can in the communi ty to give them our presentation of the education program, \vhat can be expected, "That can be done, and more than an;,{thinG else to quite their concerns about any cost to the community. I emphasize the fact that a miGrant The fact family, a migrant group, are really an asset to a community, not a liability. Hithout the migrant's help, iVhat "lould the agricultural Horkers do. that they are coming there to 'wrk, and they 't'lill make money. community, "Till stay in that community. really a necessity.
It has been

proGram Hork, or make it

documented that, bet'ter than 60% of their total income that is made in that

Also, the fact that a proGram such

as this creates jobs in that community, and heaven knOl'T vlOrk at part-time jobs at vThat ever they are doine. if they could work in the field they are trained in.

that jobs are

Particularly in the summer time, how many teachers Houldn't it be better
lrle are giving them

the oppo'rtuni ty to do it by experimenting vTith the proGram. tiveness is the key word in this type of program.

Although it Innova-

has its gui(lelines, it does leave room for a lot of flexability.

1fihere else can a teacher,

a principal, project director, or anybody Horkine on the Migrant proGram, have an opportunity to do some experimentations on theories or techniques? I think, community acceptanoe, is by far the most important part for this kind of proeram. He do everything vIe oan to enoourage the oommuni ty reEven if its only to visit the He also encourage them to volunt eer their sidents to participate in this program. sohool, to viei'l the activities. servioes.

It's amazing hm'l many people in these small tOvms volunteer their

-17noreno: services. pro.:;rarn. They actually Get involved and really feel tho enthuciasrn of the I don't knoH of a croup more committed to the procram then the Then the personnel, teacherc, aids, and anyone In the Renville comIt Nany of these

people of the community. see.

else in the proGram, they are all dedicated, it is a beautiful thinG to You have to see it, to really appreciate it. munity, vThere Ne just opened neN projectr:: last year for the first time. is a seven CO'tL'1ty area, around the neH s1..1.0ar refinery. of them. steal.

counties never had a micrant before, never had seen one, but they had heard Consequently, they ''lere very apprehensive, suspicious, the old

stereo types, lock

up because anything loose around they will He introduced them and

They are dirty, etc, etc, ••• Hell, 1;le did a lot of spade '1Ork in the

community before the program ever got started. pros' and the cons'.

educated them as much as VIe could, as to what they could expect, both the I'Then the programs got started, the people ,,;rere curious. It wasn't very lon,,; The other thinG that took They naturally made it a point to visit these proGrams. before they '-TOre really getting along very i'le 11. that Here NorkinG in their sUGar beet fields. It '-las a beautiful thing to ,,,atch.

place is that some of these [;,r01'1ers families cot to knOH the mi:;rant families They became very close friends. It VlaS They At the end of the school program year,

there VTas a biG community fiesta put on in the tOvm of Renville. totally a community thing, \'lith the Chamber of Commerce behind it. decorated and baracted the streets. made and so Id. different times. the

They had a Hexican orchestra playin.';. A lot of j·;exican food ivas

The Hhole thing had a very festive air about it.

As a matter of fJ.ct, they sold lliexican food three or four The committees cot together, they tallied their activities, The

committee came up 'Id th $480 in funds.

Comni ttee Hent

to the l,:ayor's office and they donated the money to the comrrnmit;y so they could purchase playcround equipment. the;'l 'I'Tere living in the community. express the kind That ",as their token of appreciation I thought, this \'las a beautiful VlaY to By vlorking "lith the for the services and the care that had been given to their children, ,,[hile of change that took place in the attitudes of the people.

It also proved to me that we VTere on the right tracl<:. people involved. feeling.

community this closely throUGh our services, our agency, our people and other That a program can be introduced successfully, is a great The children had been Last year, it 'vas so easy to get the program started, the enthusiasm I Has told story after story.

. VIas there and people Here looking.. forward to it. looking fOr'l'l'ard to getting back to school.



UOH the chi1dr,en Hero'runninc; to their teachers that they had last year. The happinecG that vlaS shovm vThen' they car:1e into school. "That encourac;en a child to Co to school. problems that He have in school. activities. If the same kind This to r.le, is
of enthuciacm

HaG shmm in the re.:.,'U1ar school, I don tt think He ,,,,ou1d have half of the I look forHard to more of this kind of He sure Hi8h you continued Hopefully, it Hill continue the Hay it has been.


Sounds like this pro cram is a fine success. success.

Thank you very rauch for the intervieH.



you, Grant.