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Interview with Sua V. Yang

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Sua Vu Yang is the mother of MayKao Hang and the daughter of See Lee. Her maiden clan name is Vu and she married into the Yang clan. She is fifty-one years old and has five children. She has graduated from high school and completed other courses. She studied for two years at Northeast Metro. She is employed making hearing aids for the deaf. She is separated from her husband whom she married when she was fifteen. She immigrated to America about twenty-three years ago. She lived in Huab Xis Vees, Seng Khouang, Laos. She is a White Hmong that wears Phuam Paj. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED: Biographical information and religious affiliation. Childhood-school attendance, duties at home, community service, skills taught, social activities as a child, aspirations as a child. Hmong women's roles-decision making inside and outside of home and clan, women in leadership roles and how they are seen in the community, what women do to support their families, family planning, when women feel respected or disrespected. The war and living in refugee camps-memories of fleeing Laos, of refugee camps, difference in treatment of men and women in the camps. Adjustments since coming to the U.S.-skills needed to adjust, learning English, skills from Laos and Thailand that are adaptable or useable in the U.S., citizenship, leadership roles for women in the U.S. versus Laos, public contributions by Hmong women. COMMENTS ON INTERVIEW: The interview was conducted predominantly in Hmong. The Hmong transcript and an English translation are bound together for this interview.

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SUA VU YANG
Narrator

MAYKAO HANG
Interviewer

ORAL HISTORY OFFICE

Funded by a grant from the Minnesota Legislature. Copyright © 2001 by Minnesota Historical Society All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Oral History Office, Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55102.

HMONG WOMEN’S ORAL HISTORY PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

Minnesota is home to one of the largest Hmong communities in the United States. More Hmong live in the Twin Cities than in any other urban area in the United States. Originally from Laos, the Hmong supported American troops during the Vietnam War. Beginning in 1976 and continuing in four waves until 1996, many came to the United States as political refugees. The Hmong have strong kinship and clan ties. Many who originally were resettled in other areas, chose to move to Minnesota to be close to family members and other relatives. The elder women’s experiences included maintaining home and family while their husbands fought alongside American soldiers in the Vietnam War. They fled their farms and villages and crossed the Mekong River into Thailand where they lived in refugee camps before resettling in the United States. The experiences of the oldest members of the community are vastly different from those who came here as children and those who were born in this country. Today, Hmong women work as teachers, lawyers, and decision makers in their respective positions— opportunities not available to them in their homeland. The youngest never experienced war or resettlement and are unfamiliar with the privations of their elders. This oral history project chronicles the contributions and experiences of Hmong women with ties to Minnesota. Members of the Hmong Women’s Action Team, a group of Hmong women community leaders and activists, interviewed each other and their mothers and grandmothers, and in one case her daughter. They share their stories of life in the Minnesota, Thailand, and Laos. Three generations from six different families are represented in this series of eighteen interviews. The interviews help provide a greater understanding of Hmong women’s roles in the home and community, challenges and successes in public and private realms, and across time and space.

An Interview with

Sua Vu Yang Narrator MayKao Hang Interviewer On January 22, 2000

For the Hmong Women’s Action Team Oral History Project Hmoob Thaj Yeeb Oral History Project

The transcript is presented in both English and Hmong.

Sua Vu Yang
MH: Today is January 22nd in the year 2000, this is the interview of Sua Vu Yang and I, MayKao Hang, her daughter will do the interview. Before we Start, I want to ask you a little bit about yourself. What is your maiden clan name? SVY: My maiden clan name is Vu and my mother’s maiden name is Moua. MH: What clan did you marry into? SVY: When I got married, I married the Yang clan. MH: Right now, how old are you? SVY: Right now, I am 51 years old. MH: How many children do you have? SVY: I have five children, four daughters and one son. MH: What is the highest grade that completed? SVY: I only finished high school. MH: After you finished high school, what else did you study? SVY: After I finished high school, I took sewing and cooking American foods. MH: When you were attending classes, your sewing classes…were you taking these courses in college or some place else? SVY: I took that course in college. I went to Northeast Metro. MH: How many years did you complete there? SVY: I studied two years. MH: Two years? Right now, what kind of work do you do? SVY: Right now, I am working. I make hearing aides for the deaf. MH: How much do you get paid yearly? I will give you some ranges and you tell me how much you get paid. Within a year, do you get $20,000 or less, $20,000-$50,000, $50,000-$75,000, or $75,000-$100,000?

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SVY: Probably only $28,000 per year. MH: Whom do you live with right now? Do you live by yourself, live with your husband and other people that your family lives with, which are your relatives? SVY: Right now, I live by myself. I bought a home and I live with my children. MH: Right are you still married or not? Are you living by yourself? SVY: Right now I am still married. I have a husband. MH: How old were you when you got married? SVY: I was fifteen years old when I got married. MH: So right now you are married. We know that you are still married, but what about your family? Does your family have more than one mother? SVY: We only had one mother. In my household, I’m the only mother, but my husband has two wives and so there is a stepmother too. MH: But they don’t live with you? SVY: No, they don’t. MH: How long have you been in America? SVY: I’ve been here for probably twenty-three years… MH: Your mother and father, where do they live, what country? SVY: My mother and father lived in Laos. They have passed away. MH: Do you remember back in Laos, what part of Laos or what city was it? SVY: When we were back in Laos, we live in Seng Khouang, but our village where we lived in was called Huab Xis Vees. MH: What about you? What kind of Hmong are you? Are you White Hmong, Blue Hmong or Stripe Hmong? SVY: We are White Hmong, but we are the Hmong that wear Phuam Paj. MH: Regarding the Hmong that wear Phuam Paj, what is the difference?

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SVY: They are not that much different. When the elderly didn’t had Fume Txoom Suab, for them they buy Phuam Puab Yib and sewed with flowers and wear them as Phuam Paj. MH: What is your religious? Are you still carrying the old tradition or are you Christian? SVY: Right now still carrying the old tradition. MH: We had talked a little bit about you. Now, I’m going to ask your some questions about when you were a little child. Please share with us as a little child, did you go to school? SVY: When I was a little child, we lived in the highland hills and villages. I did not go to school. In fact I stayed at home to help my parents cook and clean. When I was about 10– 13 years old, I helped baby-sit my younger brothers and sisters so my parents could go to work. MH: What about when you were young? What were your duties at home? You had mentioned about baby-sitting. What else did you do? SVY: Baby-sitting the young, grinding rice, carrying the tub to get water, gathering firewood, gathering food from the farm…to feed the cows and the horses, gathering greens to prepare food for my parents, helping my mom sweep the floor and doing other house chores. MH: Were there things that you did or a time where you went out to help out your neighbors, or you went to help your relatives? SVY: Yes, there was. There were times when I, (my mom, she had many children two to three of them), went to help my aunts and uncles carry water, help them baby-sit, went with my aunts to the farm to gather food for them and the animals, gather water and firewood and help them baby-sit too. MH: When you were young as a little girl, were there things that you needed to learn from your mother and other women. What things did they teach you as a little girl so that when you were an adult, you would know what to do? SVY: Yes, they did. When I was about nine years old, my mother taught me how to do handicrafts. She taught me how to cook, and how to make clothes. My mother gave me a needle and showed me how to make my clothes and how to do handicrafts. My mother taught me how to do all that. MH: When you were a teenager, what were the things that you did or played for fun? SVY: We did not have any time that we could go play and have fun at all. My parents would not let us go to play anywhere, instead we went to the fields to farm. When I was about 13-15 years old and older all we did is to go to the fields. We never had any fun at 9

all. Every year in December, we went to our New Year Celebration. This is the only time that we can go play and have fun for about four to five days. That is it. MH: When you were a child or when you were a teenager, the things that you were dreaming of within you that you wanted to achieve or accomplish when you grew up, such as the things that you wanted to wear or wanted to do. What would those be? Something that you really wanted as a child or teenager so you were determined to do whatever it takes to get it. SVY: We did not have such desires…back then, all we did is work in the fields so there is nothing that we really wanted or needed. But we wanted to make sure that we had enough food to eat and clothes to wear. I had seen other grown up young women and was wondering how come they were so lucky to be grown up so perfectly, but for nice clothes to wear is all that I really wanted to have. MH: Beside the wants of enough food to eat, better clothes to wear, and growing up to a woman… What else that you have dream of or don’t you remember? SVY: …did not remember thinking about anything at all. MH: Let’s talk about the roles of a woman before and after the fall of Laos. What were they like before the war and after they have come to America? What were the duties of a woman back in Laos? SVY: Oh! Women’s role or duties back in Laos, well, there were too many of them. The women’s roles were—preparing food for the entire family is a role of a woman. Taking care of the livestock was also the role of a woman. Taking care of your guests and serving them well were also duties of a woman. The man’s role was just to be the head of the household only… and back in Laos if there was a feast and regardless of how much food was there, the men always got to eat first. If there was anything leftover then the women could eat. Even if there wasn’t anything leftover, they couldn’t say a word about it. Our rules were always like that so we just kept following them. My husband, I didn’t have the time to tell him or keep asking him to help me out. Everything else, because I am the woman of the house was my responsibility. MH: What about the duties…that you think were the role of a woman… What were they like? SVY: Women’s duties… MH: What kind of duties are classified as a woman’s duties? SVY: As I mentioned above, those duties are the roles of a woman.

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Taking care of our guest, taking care of our house, serving our guests and our parents, loving our parents, loving our relatives and neighbors. All these are the roles of a woman of the house. MH: Within your family, what is the role of a woman in decision-making? SVY: Are you talking about back in Laos? MH: Back in Laos or in this country, let’s say as a woman, if there is a meeting about a problem, how can a woman make such a decision or does she just have no participation in it at all? SVY: For our generation, we have no participation in any meetings that were held by men. Back in Laos, if there were meetings, only the men can attend and they did not bring their wives with them. Whatever the men decided that was final. But in this country, it’s totally different. The women can attend and participate in any meetings. The women can have a voice in that meeting equally. But back in Laos, the women had no voice at all. If women said anything, it was ignored. There was no participation for the women. MH: Within your immediate family, what is your decision making process? SVY: Right now, as a family in American and as a woman I can see that there are changes in the way we live and make decisions. Regardless of who makes the decisions, if I feel like it, I can make a decision. Now I can do that as well. MH: What about back in Laos? Were there any leaders that were women? SVY: As I far as I know, there were none. As a woman depending on what office your husband holds, the only think you can do is to help him. If there are lots of duties, the man can hire several people to help you out. When it came to making decisions, the woman had no part in it. MH: What about your immediate family in regards to making a living. What is a woman’s role? SVY: When we lived back in Laos, my role to support my husband was to take good care of our guests so that my husband doesn’t lose face. That is a good role for a woman in her family. MH: Were there things that a woman could do to support the family or use something to help support the family in regards to money? SVY: Yes, of course!

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MH: Why don’t you talk a little bit about women’s duties that they perform outside for their family to help them produce more money. What are they? SVY: Back there, it depended on the individual. Some had the ability so they went to work. Those that resided in the city, they went to work to earn monthly income too. Those that resided in the highlands, all they did was to raise livestock for sale. If you have a huge number of livestock, you can have enough money to go all year-round. You have enough money to buy clothes and fabric for your children. MH: Within your immediate family, was there something that you did such as working outside to help your family out? SVY: When I was young and still single. I still lived with my parent, up until fourteen to fifteen years I did not work at all, but when I got married I worked. I cooked Pho, Khob Poob noodles to sell and I also sold medication to help out my family and also to provide food and shelter for my children. MH: When you were planning to have children or to start a family. Who is the responsible for your family planning such as how many children to have? How many girls or boys did you want? SVY: Back in Laos, we did not have any family planning at all. There was no planning at all. However many we had that is what we took. Regardless of what we had, either boys or girls, we took them all. When we came to this country, then we started to plan. We had four girls and we thought that was enough, but we really wanted a boy, so we had another one and he was a boy so we decide not to have any more. We were afraid that we might not be able to support them in this country. That is why we decided not to have any more children. MH: What form of protection did they use to prevent having too many children too close to each other then? SVY: Are you talking about back in Laos? MH: Yes, about back in Laos? SVY: We did not use any and did not have anything to use. There was no medication that we could use so we did not use anything at all. MH: Was there a time when you thought people treated you with the highest respect, or you felt like you had the most rights? When was that? SVY: After we come to this country. MH: Only in this country?

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SVY: Only in this country… After we got to this country, we saw other people’s successes then I went to school. Back in Laos, I did not go to school at all only after we came to this country did I attended school. At first we came to Milwaukee and I attended a school called Each One-Teach One. I started to study ABCs and I started to learn about things like cups and plates. Then I moved into ESL [English as a Second Language], which is a program that teaches the elderly. After I finished that program then I went into TVI to learn how to cook. I did a lot of thinking, so I went into High School to get my diploma. After I finished High School, I knew I had to get a good specific education. That is when I decided to go to school for sewing. After I finished the sewing program, it wasn’t that appealing to me, so I decided to look for work such as assembly line, which is called “technician” now. I went to work on making hearing aides for the deaf. MH: Do you think that the time that you get the most respect from others was the time you went to school? SVY: That is what I thought, but our Hmong people they tend to not respect us because we were older when we come to this country and we did not have enough education. But as our children have grown, they have become more and more successful. They have gained more respect which includes us, the parents, in gaining more respect because of our children. MH: Let’s talk about the fall of Laos and when you were at the camp. I like to ask you a couple of questions regarding them. Why did you escape from Laos? What made you decide to escape? SVY: About 1970-75 was the fall of Laos. We could not stay in Laos and that is why we decided to gather everybody and flee to Thailand. We took our children and fled into Thailand. MH: What was that time like? SVY: At that time, everybody fled all over the place, people were leaving their hometowns just like ants come out of their holes. People were leaving their hometowns. Everybody gathered to flee on the road to Vientiane. There were lots of people on that road! There were lots and lots of people just like an earthquake with ants come out of their holes. Everybody came to a town called Heng Her. At that time, I only had three children. My husband was captured and put in an education camp in Vietnam so I took my three children, my brother-in-law, and another older brother-in-law who had left two wives back in his hometown and fled to that town called Heng Her. There were many, many people who came to that town. In that town there was a gate that was guarded and they did not let anyone pass by. The next morning at dawn, they sent the Vietnamese soldiers to ask us to see if we had money and we told them that we did not have any money. The soldiers took out their guns to control us so we fled. My older brother-in-law carried my youngest child and I carried my second child and held my older child and we ran away. 13

We ran across a small valley, but at the same time the soldiers fired shots at the people. Those that could not run as fast were buried with dust. Then we came to a town named Bang Xam Xa Nou. This is the town that the Hmong people got sick because they drank the brown water. Those people that drank were the one who got the disease, the kind of disease that cannot be cured by anybody in the whole world. The kind of disease that you started to lose your fingers and your toes which we call leprosy (mob rua). While we were in that town, my older brother-in-law went into the city and never came back so he went on to tell my husband about where we were. My husband came back to get us from that town, Bang Xam Xa Nou and took us back to a town named Na Xou. We lived in Na Xou for about a week then we headed out again, only this time we went toward the side of Thang Due (Thaj Dwj) which its part of Luang Phrabang toward the side of Sayaboury. At that time we were so worried because there was another group that had come by and they were arrested and had been forced back to Sayaboury. We had with us three sisters, a friend of my brother-in-law, and one uncle with the same last name. We came to and stay at a town named Nan Hia. We did not let anybody go out at all then except my husband and I. We used to live in that town so people were so happy to see us! Teacher Blong is back is what people thought. We pretended like we are looking for land to farm. After about a little over a week then we found our way toward Thailand. The journey toward Thailand was very hard. We had three small children. We each carried one and the oldest one walked. In addition to that we also carried food, clothes, lunches and dinners so the journey was very harsh. After nine days and nine nights of walking we finally arrived in Thailand. The journey was very, very hard. There are mud up to your knees, the kids couldn’t walk at all so we had to go very slow and take lots of time and finally we got to Thailand, and we rested there for a while. MH: When you were at the camp, what do you remember? How long were you there? SVY: When we arrived in the camp, when we were in Thailand? Oh! It was not that long either. It was about eight months. We stayed there for about eight months then the first group of people who came to interview us were the French. The French were looking for those of us who had helped the French. When the French came, my husband was not there. He had gone to a city called Can Wat Nah (Cas Vav Naj). Even though my husband was not there, as a mother, we still had others who had worked for the French. So I went to apply with the French just in the event that if we could not go the America, we could go to France. To make a living in the camp was so hard that is why we looked for a way out. All we could do was to make handicrafts and sell them. There was no place that you could work there. We had to go out and we looked for other work from the Thai people. Even though my male relatives were not there, but I knew I had to find a way out to take my children into a better place and outside of our country so that is why I went to apply with the French. But when the Americans came to take applications my husband was back and he went to apply to come to America.

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MH: Was there anything good about the camps? You had mentioned that making a living there was hard. Was there anything good there? SVY: One of the good things was that they gave us rice so that we did not starve. The United Nations (Xab Pab Xaj) had provided us with food such as rice and meat, but we only had five people in our household so we received very little food. In regards to meat, we only receive about a half to one Kilo of meat. Meat depended on the day. There were too many people at the camp so there was not enough food to eat at all so that is why we were looking for something else to do. I had three small children with me so I did not work, but my husband had to look for other work to do such as cutting grass and cutting firewood for the Thai people to get extra money. MH: What about when you were at the camp, what else did you do besides taking care of your children and keeping the house clean? SVY: At that time we came to live in Av Pawm Puas we gathered some grass (nqeeb) to make a bed for the family to sleep on. There was no house to live in so we gathered more grass (nqeeb) and built a small house just big enough to cover the bed so we could sleep on it. MH: Do you live like that for eight months? SVY: Yes, we lived like that for eight months. MH: When you were at the camp, what did you think of people’s respects toward women versus men? SVY: At that time we don’t know what to think. There was no importance for both men and women. Nobody felt important at all because everything we did to make a living was to work like slaves to the Thai people. That was the hardest time in our lives. We never had anything this harsh in our lives later on. MH: Can you talk about when you came to America and what was your life like when you first came to America? What made you decide to come to America? SVY: When we made a decision… I had talked to my husband and my children as a group. Because my husband was a teacher back in Laos and we were the most educated of our relatives so we decided to come to this country because all of our relatives would need to come. We decided that regardless of how dark or how clear the road ahead is we are going to come and bring our children first. If more of our relatives did come behind us we could sponsor them, that is why we decided to come. We went through the interview process and then we passed, so we as a family decide to come.

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When we arrived in America, the town where we first came and lived was Milwaukee, Wisconsin. When we first arrived and our sponsor had not rented a house for us to live, we lived with our sponsors. They gave us a small bed for my husband and me and another bed for our children. The food that they ate was totally different. They ate bread for food, which was different. We thought we had made a mistake to come to this country because we had brought our children to a place like this. There was no food for the kids to eat. So we loved each other very much, not knowing what to do next. We stayed home everyday and our sponsors went to work everyday just like what we are doing today. They just dropped some bread on the table and said if you are hungry then eat this. The kids were eating okay, but for me, I could not eat bread at all. I could not eat and every time I looked at the food, my tears dropped immediately and I thought I would starve to death, but after about three weeks they rented a home for us to live. There was a Laotian man named Xa Fang (Xas Faj), he was a pilot back in Laos. So the Laotian man came and with him was a Chinese boy so they took us to buy rice, to buy food in a Chinese Oriental store. They told us that we are Asian people and we could buy food in this store to eat. There we went to buy our food such as rice, greens, noodles and all kinds of food. They told us that we could buy as much as we wanted and once we ran out we could go and buy some more, but my husband did not want us to eat too much. He told us that one chicken should last us two to three meals because he was afraid that others might think, “How could we had sponsored a family that eats so much?” because we were eating everything they bought. In fact, we were afraid of Americans too, so we only ate enough to survive, but after more and more Hmong people came over, we had found out that we had our own money that had been given to us as refugees by the government. The word started to get around that we had our own money as refugees and that we should not to worry so much and not be afraid. They told us not be afraid to use the money and feel free to buy food for the kids so that they have enough to eat. So the feeling of what others might think went away. We went to buy all kinds of food for our children to eat and they also have some money just to buy food just like food stamps. That additional money helped out a little bit, but when we first got here, you had to buy $200 worth of food and pay it with cash before you could get $200 worth of food stamps. That is what we lived with and then we started to go to school. Our sponsors came and took us to apply for school and then we started to go to school. Because I have small children, I had to wait for my husband to come back from work via a bus and baby-sit and then I could take the bus to school at night. About two years later, we decided to leave our sponsor and started to look for other Hmong people and our relatives because my husband and I wanted to get more schooling. Then we move to Minnesota to look for other Hmong.

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MH: How old are you when you came to this country? SVY: Probably twenty-five years old. MH: After you had come to this country what is the easiest thing for you to learn? SVY: Oh! In this country, there is nothing that is easy to learn at all, but the only thing that is easy is that you do not have to go to carry water or firewood because all you have to do is turn the stove on then you can start cooking. [Laughs] This is the easiest thing that I learned. MH: Let’s say, what do you say is the hardest thing for you to have learned so that you could feel comfortable living in this country? SVY: For myself, it’s learning how to write. Learning to write is the hardest thing for me to learn and I learned the slowest because I never before had learned how to write. Ever since I was born, my mother and father did not let me go to school at all so I only knew how to speak, but when it comes to writing, I’m very slow. MH: What is it that has helped you adapt quickly to the new life in America? What else do you have that helped you get along with people? One thing that you had that maybe you learned in Laos or something to made you adapt quickly to this country? SVY: I compared my life back in Laos with the life in this country then I adapted well because in this country it’s just going to work to earn some money to help out your family. It was easy to adapt. When it comes to my children and the educational system there is no comparison between the life back then and the life now. One life will not be comparable to the other, but there are lots of differences in this country. Before you have to learn to adapt to the new differences and let go of the old ones. Just like you totally follow the new life in this country so your behavior is also different. MH: The knowledge that you gained from your mom or your father’s house something that we had talked about earlier, did that help you with your new life in the new country? SVY: Oh! Yes. My mom and dad taught us how to live our lives by telling us don’t be lazy and don’t become bad people. I kept my mom and dad words to live my life back then and now. But the ability to earn is more powerful in this country than back then. In this country we have the same rights as the Americans and we can earn as much as them. It is up to your knowledge so that you gain. You will earn as much as or as little as your knowledge can take you. MH: Do you think the life of a woman is better in this country then back in Laos? SVY: I am a much older person and this is what I think. For those who grew up in this country or the those grew up back in Laos and came to this country and still young, the life in this country is much better than back there by many, many folds. 17

MH: Is it better for you? SVY: I think it is better. It’s a little better too. It’s not that much better than when we lived back then, but it’s a little better. MH: Was it because you were only twenty-five years old when you come to this country? SVY: Yes. MH: How do you consider this country? Do you feel like you are part of this country and this is your home country? SVY: I always thought that regardless of what part of the land you lived in, you are part of it. Even in this country we are not the only ones, but there are lots of other people who also live in this country too, so I think it is good too. MH: Are you a U.S. citizen yet? SVY: Yes I am. MH: And did you go out to vote? SVY: Sometimes I go. MH: Sometimes you go? Are there any Hmong candidates who have ran for office with the Americans? What do you think of those Hmong people who have run for office? SVY: It is up to their abilities. It is good if they have the abilities to run for it, but some of our Hmong people who live in this country, some are good and some are not good, so I don’t know. MH: Is it up to the individual? SVY: It is up to the individual. MH: Now, let’s talk about the duties of a woman inside the home to outside of the home. During the war, did you know anything about them? SVY: Oh! During the war, everybody including my uncles and their wives, my brothers and the in-laws were fighting for the war. It was not that I just heard from other sources, it was something that I saw with my own eyes. MH: So you know and heard about it everyday?

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SVY: Everyday, we worried about it and we were afraid that there might be a problem. MH: Was there a leader (nom tswv) who knew how to lead that was important to you, from what you saw, you like the way they led and respected them as a leader? SVY: Are you talking about back in Laos? MH: I’m talking about back in Laos. SVY: Back there… There was a lot of respect for our leaders. The leaders are the most respected group of people back then. You would know if you saw one. MH: Others respected them, what about you? Did you respect them too? SVY: I did respect them too. MH: If you respected them, too, who were they? SVY: Just like our governor and senators, we all respected them as leaders. The leaders at the army like General Vang Pao, we all knew that they were our leaders and we gave them our highest respect. We also gave respects to those who had attained a higher education as well. MH: In this country, do you think that there are ways that women outside of the home can lead? In what way? SVY: Oh! In this country, it is good because both women and men they are at the same level. Our children, who have attained a higher education, have the rights to run and compete on anything they want. It doesn’t matter if they are running for office or competing to get a job, they have the rights. MH: There are lots of changes. Was there any woman who had become a leader back in Laos? SVY: There was no women who held a higher office back them, but those whom had attained a higher education or attained a higher professional career like banker, nurses and soldiers were a few. MH: What are the differences that the Hmong women have in rights in this country that they may not be able to do back in Laos and in Thailand? SVY: In this country, there is nothing that they can’t do. In this country I see lots of our sons and daughters going to get the higher education. They all have the same equal rights. A woman can perform the same job as a man can. Whatever men can do so can women such as being a soldier. Even though they know they are women, they have the same abilities as men. They are people, too. 19

MH: What do you see in terms of the work that our Hmong women have helped our people not only in their household, but outside of their home. What do you think we should remember and recognize about their efforts or the contributions they have made to our people? SVY: Regarding the efforts of our Hmong women, I think that they have worked very hard to help our people to be at the same level as other people. Those efforts were very valuable to our people. They have the same abilities as our men. Just as an example, if there a meeting that has four or five men, chances are there are two or three women are also a part of it. This is a good thing. MH: Is there anything that we have not talked about that you like to add them to this cassette? This is all of our questions. SVY: I think that after we came to this country, our children have the same opportunities as other people from other nationalities. Knowledge is not something you are preassigned or born with, but something that can be learned. If you have the ambition, you can learn it. We were the people who could not speak other languages, but as our children grew, they could speak fluently like other people that were originally from here. I think of the culture that we had back in our old country and if we are still using that culture today, our kids would not use them anymore. They will adapt to here. Regardless, women and men have the ability to do things, we can not say that because you are a women, you do not have the ability to do something. They have the same equal rights and abilities. When we came to live this country our children still looked at us as parents, and as parents we looked at our children as children when they lived with us. But after they have grew up, they went on to work and become leaders and very successful out there like other nationalities. We need to keep our eyes on our children and make sure that they have good behavior and we need to encourage our children. When as parents, we are growing old, we tend to lose hope, and we hope and know that our children will become our mother and father. Regardless of where they work, they can be working in the non-profit organization or other places, we need to look at our children with respect and encourage them. We need to treat our daughters the same as our sons because the have the same capabilities. In this country sometimes the boys are not doing as well in school as the girls, but I want all of us to have the same respect for our children. Our children will grow up and get married, but they all are still our children. This is all I’m going to say. My name is Sua Vu, Mrs. Yang Blong and I like to let you know that while you read this please keep the good things and drop the bad things. If we are going to tell everything about what we been through then it will take at least two to three cassettes so this is all I’m going to say. Have a good day everybody. MH: Thank you. 20

SVY: You’re welcome.

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Interviewer(I) : Today is January 22nd in an year 2000. This is the interview for Sua Vu Yang, and I am May Kao Hang, her daughter. Ces, ua ntej wb pib no kuv, kuv xav naj, kuv xav noog koj me ntsis txog koj, koj tus kheej. Koj yog nkauj hmoob dab tsi? Sua V Yang (S) : Kuv yog…nkauj hmoob Vwj, es tus yug kuv yog nkauj hmoob Muas. I: S: I: S: I: S: I: S: I: S: I: S: I: S: I: S: Es thaum ub, thaum koj los yuav txiv lawm yuav tsev hmoob dab tsi? Thaum kuv los yuav txiv, kuv yuav hmoob Yaj. Tam sim nov koj muaj pes tsag xyoo lawm? Tam sim nov kuv muaj 51 xyoos. Koj los ua neej es koj muaj pes tsawg tus me nyuam? Kuv muaj tsib tug os, kuv muaj tsib tug ; pluab tug ntxhais hos ib tug tub. Qib siab tshaj plaws uas koj kawm ntawv tiav yog dab tsi? Kuv kawm tas High School xwb. Koj puas kawm, thaum koj kawm High School tiav ntawd lawm, koj puas kawm ab tsi ntxiv thiab? Thaum kuv kawm tas High School ntawd kuv pais kawm ws niam no xaws ris tsho tiav thiab mus kawm uas ua noj yog meskas cov khoom noj. Ces thaum koj los kawm ntawv tom, koj kawm ntawv xaws tshuab ntawd yog koj kawm tom College los koj kawm tom qhov twg? Kuv kawm tom College, kuv kawm tod uas North East Metro. Es koj kawm tiav pes tsawg xyoo tom thiab? Kawm…ob xyoos. Ob xyoos lov, tam sim nov koj ua hauj lwm dab tsi xwb? Tam sim no kuv mus ua hauj lwm ua cov ntswj pob ntseg rau cov uas tsis hnov lus coj.

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Ib xyoos twg no koj ua hauj lwm koj tau nyiaj npaum li cas, kuv hais los qhia koj es kuv hais rau koj es koj qhia kuv saib yog ntau npaum li cas, ib xyoos twg, yog $20,000, tsawg tshaj ntawd rau hauv, los yog hais tias $20,000 txog $50,000, los yog hais tias $50,000 txog $75,000, los yog hais tias $75,000 txog $100,000? Kab hais tias yog li $28,000 tej ntawd tauj ib xyoos xwb pob. Tam sim nov, ua koj nrog leej twg nyob ? Koj nyob koj ib leeg xwb lov, los yog koj nrog koj tus txiv thiab lwm cov tib neeg, koj tsev neeg nyob los hais tias nrog nej cov txheeb ze nyob? Tam sim no kuv nrog…kuv nyob kuv, kuv yuav vaj yuav tsev kuv nyob nrog kuv cov me nyuam. Tam sim no ws, tam sim no koj, koj tseem yuav txiv los koj tsi yuav txiv los yog hais tias koj nyob koj ib tug kheej lawm xwb? Tam sim no kuv tseem yuav txiv mas, kuv tseem muaj txiv. Tseem muaj txiv lov ? Koj muaj hnoob noog li cas thaum koj yuav txiv? Thaum kuv yuav txiv kuv muaj 15 xyoos. Ws, tam sim no koj yuav txiv, paub hais tias koj yuav txiv lawm thiab tab sis nej tsev neeg ntawd muaj ib leej niam xwb los muaj coob tshaj li ib tug. Peb muaj ib leeg niam xwb os. Hauv kuv lub tsev…yog kuv ib leeg niam xwb tiam sis kuv tus txiv muaj ob tus poj niam hos kuv muaj niam yau thiab os. Tab sis lawv tsi nrog nej nyob lov? Lawv tsis nyob. Koj twb tuaj teb chaws meskas no tau pes tsawg xyoo lawm? Tuaj tau muaj 23 xyoos nyov lawm pob. Koj niam thiab koj txiv uas yug koj nyob qhov twg, teb chaws twg? Kuv niam thiab kuv txiv lawv nyob teb chaws Nplog lawm… xiam tas lawm. Koj puas nco qab nyob teb chaws Nplog ntawd yog thaj tsam twg los yog tias lub xeev twg?

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Thaum peb nyob tim mas nyob rov sab Xeev Khuam, tab sis mas peb lub zos peb nyob yog hu ua Huab Xis Vees no nav. Ces koj yog, koj yog hom yam hmoob dab tsi, hmoob dawb los yog hmoob ntsuab los yog hmoob txaij? Peb yog hmoob dawb tab sis peb yog cov hmoob ntoo phuam paj. Cov es hmoob ntoo phuam paj ntawd nws ho txawv, txawv li cas? Uh nws tsi txawv thiab mas, thaum tej laus tsi muaj phuam txoom suab tej ces lawv ua yuav phuam puab yib coj los ntxhoo paj rau ces ntoo xwb. Ces tam sim nov koj, koj kev ntseeg yog, yog ab tsi xwb tseem coj kev cai qub los yog coj kev cai tshiab lawm? Tam sim no tseem coj kev cai qub. Ces wb tham txog, wb tham txog me ntsis koj tus kheej lawm, ces tam sim no kuv yuav noog koj txog thaum es koj tseem yog me nyuam yaus nav, koj sim piav saib thaum koj tseem yog me nyuam yaus koj puas mus kawm ntawv thiab? Kuv, thaum kuv me, peb nyob rau tim toj siab tej roob tej hav xwb, kuv tsis mus kawm ntawv nyob hauv tsev pab tej laus ua noj ua haus, thiab thaum me ces kuv noob nyoog muaj li 10 xyoo rov los mus rau 13 xyoos tej ntawd ces zov tej yau es cia tej laus mus ua noj xwb. Ua li hos thaum koj tseem yog me nyuam yaus nav koj, koj tej dej num es nyob tom tsev yog dab tsi xwb, koj hais zov cov yau, zov cov yau thiab muaj ab tsi thiab? Zov cov yau thiab tuav txhuv lauj, mus kwv raj mus kwv dej lauj, mus khaws taws lauj, mus de zaub nram tej teb…. los pub… nyuj pub nees lauj ho pub rau, de zaub los rau yus niam yus txiv noj tej ntawd thiab ua hauj lwm pab yus niam, cheb vaj cheb tsev hauv vaj hauv tsev ntau yam. Puas muaj tej yam los puas yog tej lub sij hawm es koj mus pab tib neeg nyob zej zog los yog hais tias mus pab kwv tij neej tsa tej ntawd thiab? Muaj mav, yus tej thaum ces yus, kuv niam lawv mas lawv me nyuam coob ob peb tug ces mus pab tej txiv ntxawm lawv nqa dej os, mus saib me nyuam os tej rau tej niam ntxawm mus tom teb, mus de zaub noj zaub npuas tom tej teb os, mus txiav dej txiav taws tej ntawd ces yus yeej mus pab tej niam ntxawm txiv ntxawm zov me nyuam thiab.

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Thaum koj yau es koj tseem yog me nyuam ntxhais nav, tej yam hauj lwm ua koj tau xyaum es ntawm koj niam, los yog ntawm lwm tus poj niam los nav yog koj yuav tsum paub txog yam dab tsi xwb, lawv puas qhia tej yam es hais rau yus, me yog nyuam ntxhais es lawv qhia rau yus tias yus yog me nyuam ntxhais es yuav tsum ua li nov li nov? Lawv qhia mas, thaum uas muaj noob nyoog li 9 xyoos os tej ntawd ces yus niam yeej qhia kom yus ua paj ntaub… yeej qhia.. kom yus ua mov tej, kom yus paub ua mov, paub xaws ris xaws tsho, yus niam yeej muab koob los qhia rau yus hais tias kom yus xaws khaub ncaws, xaws sev xaws tsho zoo li cas ces yus niam yeej qhia rau yus ua. Thaum koj yog hluas nkauj nav, ws, nej tej kev es mus ua si kom lom zem yog dab tsi xwb? Peb tsi muaj kev mus ua si dab tsi li, tej laus yeej tsi pub mus ua si qhov twg li ces yog mus ua teb, thaum uas loj hlob es muaj li 13 xyoos rov mus rau 15 xyoos rov yav ntawd ces mus ua teb es niam no tej ntawd xwb, tsi muaj kev lom zem li, ib xyoos ntuj zeeg kawg ces lub 12 hlis ntuj tag ces mus noj peb caug ces thiaj tau mus dhia qaib, mus pov pob mus ua si li plaub tsib hnub ntawd xwb. Thaum koj tseem yog me nyuam yaus, los yog thaum koj hluas nav, tej yam es koj xav hauv koj lub siab es koj ntshaw hais tias ua rau koj tus kheej tias lwm hnub koj yog tib neeg laus lawm es koj xav tau nav, los yog koj xav ua, yog tej yam zoo li cas xwb, zoo tias thaum yus me aiv es yus ntshaw txog los yog hais tias yus xav txog tias ntshe yus yuav ua li no kom tau no? Peb mas peb tsi muaj ib qho os niam no, thaud mas hais mas ua liaj ua teb xwb mas tsi muaj qhov yuav ntshaw ntshaw, tab sis mas ntshaw noj ntshaw hnav thiab yus yeej muaj qhov mus pom luag tej hluas nkauj loj tiav hluas nkauj tej ces yus ntshaw hais tias ua cas lawv txawj loj lawv txawj hlob es lawv loj tiav hluas nkauj li no xwb, hos qhov ua ntsaw hnav ces thiaj ntshaw hnav xwb. Puas ntshaw tej yam es .. txawv li, txawv tshaj ntawd rau yus tus kheej .. zoo li thaum i yus tiav niam lawm es yus xav na kom tau no nav? Ntshaw noj ntshaw hnav ntshaw kom yus tiav hluas nkauj tab sis puas muaj lwm yam thiab los tsi nco qab xav txog. Tsis nco qab xav txog dab tsi li as. Tam sim no wb sim tham txog poj niam lub neej sob zoo hais tias thaum uas, thaum teb chaws, thaum ua ntej teb chaws tawg thiab lub teb chaws tawg tag thiab saib tuaj rau teb chaws Ameskas no zoo li cas nav. Uas.. poj niam tej hauj lwm thaum nyob teb chaws Nplog nav yog dab tsi xwb?

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Poj niam cov hauj lwm nyob teb chaws Nplog mas yeej muaj ntau yam heev thiab nawb, poj niam li mas nws yog hais tias muaj noj muaj haus nyob lub cuab lub yig los yeej yog poj niam xwb, hos tu qaib tu npua nynob hauv lub cuab lub yig los yeej yog poj niam xwb, hos muaj kwv tij neej tsa tuaj muaj dab muaj qhua tej los yeej yog tus poj niam teev tiam xwb, tus txiv mas luag tsuas yog ua lub taub hau txiv rau ntawd xwb hos peb… nyob teb chaws tim ub mas muaj noj ib pluag mas koj txawm tua tus loj tus me los yeejce cov txiv neej noj ua ntej ces noj tag ces seem me ntsis los cov poj niam mam noj, hos tsi seem los yus yeej tsi txhob hais ib los hlo li yeej peb txoj kev cai yeej zoo ntawd ces peb yeej ua li ntawd xwb, yus tus txiv mas yus yeej tsi muaj lub caij lub nyoog uas yuav mus txib luag, los sis yuav nthe luag tsuj tse kom luag pab yus li, qhov twg los yeej yog yus yog niam ces yeej yog yus ua xwb xwb li nawb. Es cov hauj lwm es uas.. koj thwm hais tias yog poj niam cov hauj lwm xwb no nav yog hauj lwm zoo li cas? Poj niam cov hauj lwm xwb… Zoo li hais tias cov hauj lwm zoo li cas yus thiaj li thwm hais tias yog poj niam cov no? Es yeej yog cov tag li uas kuv hais los ntawd xwb mos yeej yog poj niam cov li mos. Tu qhua, tu tsev… Tu dab tu qhua tu vaj tu tsev, ntxiv ws.. tiam kwv tij neej tsa, tiam niam tiam txiv… hlub tej laus hlub tej kwv tej ntawd ces luag yeej tso plhuav rau tus niam ua tus ua… take care tas nrho tej ntawd li mos. Ces hauv koj tsev neeg kiag nav poj niam kev txiav txim yog zoo li cas xwb? Koj hais thaum uas nyob tim ub ? Nyob tim ub nyob teb chaws no los tsis, zoo li hais tias poj niam es yog tias muaj ib lub rooj sab laj es yog muaj ab tsi es teeb meem li cas no los yus ua tus poj niam es yuav ua cas txiav txim nab, zoo li hais tias los yog hais tias yus tsis mus nrog lawv tham li los cas? Cov uas, cov laus li peb phaj no mas, cov txiv neej yeej tsi pub mus nrog lawv sib tham sib sab laj li, peb nyob peb teb peb chaws mas yog niam no cov uas, cov txiv neej mas muaj ib qho sib tham mas luag yeej tsi coj poj niam mus li nawb, mas yog tus txiv tham tau li cas ces luag tham li ntawd xwb, hos tuaj txog teb chaws no mas nws ho hloov ntau yam lawm cov poj niam los yeej muaj peev xwm mus nrog lawv tham muaj peev xwm mus nrog lawv nkag rau hauv ib lub rooj sab laj, es yog hais tias tus niam hais tau lo zoo yuav los sawv daws yuav hos peb nyob

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peb ntuj qub qab mas luag yeej tsi pub poj niam hais li, poj niam hais mas luag yeej tias poj niam cais xwb no, luag yeej tsi pub poj niam hais li nawb. I: S: Es tam sim no hauv koj tsev neeg kiag nav, es koj lub cuab lub yig nav, nej ho txiav txim txog txim txog tej teeb meem li cas xwb? Tam sim no hauv lub cuab lub yig, tuaj txog teb chaws Meskas no lawm ces no yus yog niam ces yus… kuj pom hais tias kev noj kev haus thiab kev nyob, txiav txim siab nyias muaj nyias siab sawv daws txiav txim tau ib qho los yog yus ho xav hais tias yus txiav txim siab yus tus kheej no los yus kuj txiav txim siab tau thiab mas. Thaum nyob teb chaws Nplog nav, puas muaj tej tus thawj coj yog poj niam thiab? Tam li kuv paub mas tsi muaj li nawb, poj niam mas tsuas yog hais tias ib tug mus nai npab los yog hos ib tug mus toj xeem tej ntawd no mas los tsuas yog tus txiv xwb hos tus poj niam mas yeej tsuas yog hais tias ua luag, ua noj ua haus los puas, yog tus txiv txawj xav ces yuav li ib ob tug tib neeg los nrog nyob ntawd es muaj ub muaj no ces cia pab tus poj niam xwb hos poj niam yeej tsis muaj cai yuav txiav txim ab tsi hlo li. Es yog li es rau yus tsev neeg kiag nev, hais txog nrhiav noj nrhiav haus tej ntawd nav, poj niam kev pab txhawb nqa tsev neeg zoo li cas xwb, los yog li cas xwb? Uas peb nyob tim ub ces yog tias yus kev txhawb nqa yus tus txiv lub meej mom thiab… ntawd ces yog muaj dab muaj qhua tuaj ces koj tiam dab tiam qhua kom tus txiv txhob tau lub ntsej lub muag txaj, ces qhov ntawd yeej yog qhov uas zoo rau yus lub cuab lub yig. Puas muaj tej yam hais tias poj niam mus khwv los pab tsev tib neeg los yog hais tias siv tej yam ab tsi es los pab txhawb, txhawb tsev tib neeg hais txog nyiaj thiab nav? Muaj mas. Koj sim piav me ntsis thiab saib seb poj niam tej hauj lwm es poj niam mus ua sab nraum los es rau tsev tib neeg hais txog khwv los kom tau nyiaj nav yog tej yam ab tsi xwb? Hws nyob tim ub mas nyob ntawm qee leej qee tus xwb, tej tus mas nws kuj muaj peev xwm ces nws kuj mus ua laj ua kam, cov nyob hauv uas niam no nroog ces luag kuj mus ua laj ua kam tau nyiaj hnub nyiaj hli thiab, los pab thiab. Hos cov uas niam no nyob pem tej roob tej hav ces kawg tu qaib tu npua muag, es yog koj tu tau qaib tau npua coob ces koj tau nyiaj ntau los pab rau lub cuab lub yig ib

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xyoos ntuj zeeg twg ces koj yuav… yuav khaub ncaws, yuav ntaub los xaws koj tej me nyuam nav ces muag qaib muag npua. I: Es hais rau koj kiag nev hauv koj tsev neeg kiag nev, thaum nyob teb chaws nplog koj, koj puas muaj tej yam khwv es zoo li hais tias koj mus khwv sab nraum los pab koj tsev tib neeg thiab? Kuv li mas thaum uas kuv tseem yau es kuv tsi tau yuav txiv es kuv tseem hmm… nrog kuv niam thiab kuv txiv lawv nyob xwb mas, 14 xyoos mus rau 15 xyoos rov yav uas thaum yau ntawd mas, kuv yeej tsi tau khwv tab sis thaum uas kuv ho los mus yuav txiv lawm no kuv khwv mas, thaum kuv los mus yuav txiv lawm ces niam no … ua nais khu ces kuv yeej mus ua khob poob muag kuv yeej ua fawm muag , kuv yeej muag tshuaj tej ntawd los pab rau lub cuab lub yig, los pab rau kuv tej me nyuam tau noj tau hnav thiab. Leej twg yog tus es los npaj txog kev, kev muaj tub muaj ki no es hais tias yuav muaj pes tsawg tus seb, seb xav yuav pes tsawg tus tub pes tsawg tus ntxhais no nav, ua li meskas hais (family planning), how is family planning? Peb nyob tim ub peb tsi muaj plan li os. (Laugh) Tsis muaj plan li es qhov plan yog dab tsi xwb? Tsi muaj plan li ces paub tias yug tau tsawg tus los yuav tsawg tus no xwb, tau tub tau ntxhais los yuav tib si, hos yug tau tsawg tus los yuav tsawg tus, ces niam no om kuv lub family kiag mas tuaj txog teb chaws no mas mam li tuaj plan teb chaws no xwb, es muaj 4 tug ntxhais ces … xav hais tias yuav 4 tug xwb tab sis mas ho ntshaw ntshaw tub ces tos tus xuv thaib ho tau me tub ces thiaj li yug tau tus tub ntawd, ces thiaj li tsi yuav ntxiv lawm, xav hais tias nyob teb chaws no tsam ib ntsis tsi txawj khwv noj khwv haus no ces thiaj li tsi yuav ntxiv. Poj niam siv dab tsi los tiv thaiv kom tsi txhob muaj me nyuam tuab tuab nav? Es koj tias, thaum nyob teb chaws Nplog . Thaum nyob teb chaws Nplog nav? Tsi siv li os, nyob tim los yeej tsi muaj… khoom siv yeej tsis muaj tshuaj ab tsi hlo li, yeej tsi siv li oj. Hais txog koj tus kheej kiag xwb nav, ntawm zej los ntawm ib tsev neeg, koj xav hais tias lub sij hawm es hais tias tib neeg saib taus koj tshaj plaws los yog hais tias lub sij hawm es koj muaj cai tshaj plaws nav yog thaum twg? Tuaj txog teb chaws no xwb os.

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Tuaj txog teb chaws no xwb, tuaj txog teb chaws no ces thiaj tuaj, tuaj ntsia luag teb luag chaws vam meej ces yus mas li tuaj mus kawm ntawv, tuaj kawm ntawv los, kuv mas thaum nyob teb chaws Nplog mas kuv twb tsi kawm ntawv ov. Ces tuaj txog teb chaws no ces kuv mam li tuaj kawm ntawv, thaum xub xub pib ces kuv tuaj txog tom Milwaukee ces peb mus kawm ntawv ces, kuv mus kawm ntawv ib lub hoos hia hu ua (Each One- Teach One) no nawb, ces kuv mam mus kawm A B C, thiab kuv mam mus kawm tej nyuag khob tej nyuag tais tej ntawd zuj zus tuaj ces kuv mam li los mus kawm txog hauv cov E.S.L yog os cov programs qhia cov laus ces mam kawm kawm ntawd cov program ntawd tas ces kuv mam li los mus kawm ua noj hauv TVI, ces kuv xav xav ces kuv thiaj li mus kawm hauv High School Diploma, kuv ho mus kawm hauv tag ces kuv ho xav tias ntshai kuv yuav mus kom tau ib qho education zoo no, ces kuv thiaj li mus kawm xaws tshuab, kawm xaws tshuab tag los zoo nkaus li uas kuv ho tsi tshua nyiam pes tsawg thiab ces kuv ho thiaj li ho mus nrhiav hauj lwm ua, zoo li cov uas assembly line os tam sim no lawv ho hu ua technical uh …cov ntawd ces kuv thiaj li mus ua pob ntseg rau cov uas tsi hnov lus coj. I: S: Koj xav tias thaum lub sij hawm es hais tias tib neeg saib taus koj tshaj plaws ces thaum es lub sij hawm koj kawm ntawv no lov? Kuv xav mas kuv xav li ntawd tiam sis ntawm peb cov hmoob mas luag yeej saib tsis taus yus thiab mas, rau qhov tias yus yeej yog cov neeg laus tuaj tim tuaj ces niam no om ntaub ntawv los yeej txawj tsi tau txaus, thiab tab sis niam no me tub me nyuam loj tas lawm thiab ces zoo nkaus li uas yus tej me nyuam los tsim txiaj zom zaws lawm thiab ces zoo nkaus li uas luag kuj saib taus ntawm tej me nyuam txim txiaj los mus npuas rau yus ua niam ua txiv. Koj sim piav txog thaum es teb chaws tawg thiab thaum koj mus nyob rau hauv xoom sob. Ua kuv noog koj me ntsis txog thaum ntawd, thaum teb chaws tawg nav koj ua cas koj ho txiav txim khiav naj? Thaum uas xyoo 1900 uh…70, 75 ntawd ces teb chaws tawg ces peb nyob tsis taus rau lub, peb lub teb chaws ces peb thiaj li hais tias yog li ntawd ces sawv daws khiav tas los mus rau tim Thaib Teb, ces thiaj coj me tub me nyuam ces thiaj khiav los mus rau tim Thaib teb. Lub sij haum ntawd zoo li cas? Lub sij hawm ntawd mas, no sawv daws khiav khiav khiav mas… yeej khiav cuag, tib neeg mas yeej khiav cuag nkaus li uas tsaum tawm hauv qhov los mus txhua lub zej txhua lub zos los mus li es, sawv daws los mus thuab hoom ua ke rau nram uas txoj kev es lawv hu ua, uas yuav tuaj mus rau nram Vias Cam es, txoj kev luv faiss ntawd mas neeg mas coob coob !…kawg nkaus nawv, neeg mas coob coob kawg nkaus li, yeej npaum nkaus li uas… ntuj qeeg es av qeeg es

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tsawg, tsaug tawm khiav naj,ces sawv daws khiav khiav los mus txog rau nram hmm…nram lub zos, nram lub uas lawv hu ua Heem Hawj no nav. Nram lub Heem Hawj nram ces niam no, kuv thaum ntawd kuv nyuam qhuav muaj 3 tug me nyuam xwb, kuv muaj 3 tug me nyuam xwb ces hmm niam no kuv tus txiv mas lawv tseem muab teem coj mus kawm xam mas nas rau tom Nyab laj lawm, ces kuv coj kuv peb tug me nyuam thiab coj ib tug kwv, thiab coj tus txiv laus, tso ob tug niam hlob tseg, ces peb khiav tuaj mus txog nram lub zos Heem Hawj. Ces thaum ntawd ces niam no cov neeg sawv daws khiav mus coob coob….. es sawv daws mus nyob es sawv daws mus nyob ntawd naj, lawv muaj ib lub rooj vag ntawd, ces lawv tsi pub neeg dhau li ces lawv muab peb.. coj mus kaw rau ntawd ces tag kig ntawd sawv ntxov tsees ces lawv txawm los, txawm tso kiag thab ham Nyab Laj los mus hais tias kom uas niam no, peb i muab nyiaj, saib peb puas muaj nyiaj pauv no ces peb tias peb tsi muaj nyiaj pauv no ces lawv txawm kwv phom ntsij ntsiaj los mus khoo peb, ces peb thiaj khiav ces thaum ntawd ces kuv tus txiv laus mas ev kuv tus me nyuam thib peb ov hos ces kuv ev tus, ev kuv tus me nyuam thib 2, hos kuv ev tus me nyuam thib peb thiab kuv tuav tus hlob tes ces peb thiaj khiav, peb thiaj khiav hla ib lub me nyuam kwj ha, ces thaum ntawd lawv yeej luaj phom ua cov uas, luag tej es khiav qeeb me ntsis lawv qab ces yeej,av yeej paug tag li ces, thaum ntawd ces peb nyob rau nram lub zos uas lawv hu ua Npab Xam Xab Nuv no naj. Lub nram yog ib lub zog ua hmoob haus dej tsiv ntshiab es lawv yog cov es mob… yam mob uas kho, lub ntiaj teb no kho tsis tau es nqws tes nqws taw tuaj mus es peb, yog lus hmoob ces peb hu ua hmoob mob ruas no naj, ces peb tuaj mus txog rau nrad ces thaum ntawd ces peb tus txiv laus uas koj txiv, peb txiv tus tij laug nws cia li khiav rov qab mus rau nram xoom lawm tsi tuaj lawm ces thiaj li mus hais rau peb txiv ces peb txiv thiaj li mam rov qab tuaj tos peb nram zos Npab Xam Xab Noos naj, rov qab mus nyob rau hauv uas Nas Xus tau li ib vas thiv tej ntawd ces peb mam li ho uh khiav rov qab tuaj mus hla rau sab uas Thaj Dwj uas sab Luam Phab Npas ped, los mus rau sab Xam Nyab Npus Lis nav, ces peb thiaj li los mus txog rau sab Xam Nyab Npus Lis ces thaum ntawd ces peb… yeej nyuaj siab kawg thaum ntawd…lawv cov uas lawv… los ib pab los mus uas ntej es lawv ho muab xa lawv tseem muab khi ua nrw ua nrees xa rov qab mus rau tom Xam Nyab Npus Lis (Sayaboury) lawm ces thaum ntawd ces peb coj tau li peb…. tus muam thiab tu ib tus kwv tus phauj yug thiab ib tug txiv ntxawm yog ib lub xeem, ces peb thiaj li los mus nyob rau hauv lub zos hu ua Naj Hiab no ces no thaum ntawd ces peb tsi pub cov kwv tij ntawd tawm hlo li ces tsuas yog ib ob niam txiv, ces wb yeej ib txwm nyob hauv lub zos hauv ces wb thiaj tawm, ces leej twg pom wb los tsuav yog zoo siab tias oh !… Nais Khu Nplooj rov qab los no xwb ces peb yeej ua txoj los nrhiav liaj nrhiav teb hauv ua tau ib vas thiv ntau ces peb thiaj nrhiav kev tawm tuaj mus rau sab tim Thaib teb.

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Thaum peb tawm tuaj mus rau tim Thaib teb mas peb txom nyem thiab tsi txom nyem los wb 3 tug me nyuam me me aiv, es ob tug ev hos ib tug mus taus kev xwb mas ev txhuv noj, thiab ev khaub ncaws hnav, thiab ntim mov ntim su nqa, thiab mas txom nyem kawg peb los tau 9 hnub 9 hmo, peb mam li los mus tshwm rau sab Thaib teb mas peb yeej yog txom nyem kawg nkaus, av nkos mas txij nkaus hauv caug hos, cov me yuam mas yeej yog los mus tsi taus li ces peb maj mam ua tiag los mus txog rau Thaib teb ces peb thiaj li los phav tau ib nyuag ntu rau Thaib teb. I: S: Ces thaum, koj xav txog es nyob hauv xoom nav koj nco qab dab tsi xwb, nej nyob puas ntev, nej nyob ntev li cas? Thaum uas peb los txog rau hauv lub xoom no, peb los nyob tim Thaib teb lov : awb !..yauj, kuj los yog nyob tsi ntev thiab mas nyob tau 8 lub hlis xwb oj, peb nyob tau 8 lub hli nkaus ces no thawj thawj nrug ces yog fab kis tuaj ua npe ces fab kis yuav yuav cov thaum pab Fab Kis los lawm no ces, peb txiv tsi nyob lawm, peb txiv mus uam tom Cas Vav Naj lawm, ces kuv thiaj li mus, yog niam ces kuv thiaj xav tias no txiv txawm tsi nyob lawm los peb twb muaj cov neeg uas ua hauj lwm pab Fab Kis thiab ces cia kuv mus cuv npe ua ntawm Fab Kis thiab tso yog peb tsi tau tuaj Asmeskas teb no los peb yuav mus rau Fab Kis thiab no ces kuv thiaj li mus cuv npe rau ntawm Fab Kis ces cuv tas ces, peb nyob tid, tid mas qhov kev khwv noj khwv haus mas yeej yog khwv nyuaj kawg nkaws li, thiaj li nrhiav kev tawm nawb, no ua paj ntaub muag thiab ua khwv noj khwv haus yeej tsi muaj chaw khwv, mus ua Thaib zog tej xwb ces, tej txiv txawm tsi nyob lawm los tshuav yus ua niam los yus thiaj xav tias yog li ntawd lawm ces ntshai yuav tau nrhiav kev tawm es kom coj cov me nyuam tawm mus nyob rau tej qhov kom kaj siab me ntsis thiab rau qhov teb chaws yeej nrhiav kev tawm no ces peb thiaj li, kuv ua npe rau Fab Kis tas ces no thaum uas Meskas tuaj lawm ces peb ho los ua npe rau ntawm meskas ces yog txiv ho los lawm ces txiv ho los ua. Thaum lub sij hawm ntawd, tej yam es zoo es thaum koj nyob hauv xoom ntawd nav, yog dab tsi xwb. Koj hais tias mus khwv noj khwv haus yeej nyuab kawg nkaus thiab tab sis puas muaj tej ya es zoo? Thaum nyob hauv xoom ntawd mas yeej yam zoo hauv ces tsuas yog yam uas luag yug… mov tej es kom yus tsis txhob tuag tshaib xwb mas, lawv Xab Pas Xas Xaj lawv yeej yug mov, thiab lawv yeej yug mov, lawv yeej tuaj faib mov, uas luag yeej faib nqaij tej thiab tab sis mas neeg coob coob kawg ces yus tsawg tsawg ces yus li yog li 5 leeg tej ntawd xwb ces yus tsuas tau ib nyuag nrab kislus nqaij os, ib nyuag kislus nqaij os tej ntawd nyob ntawm uas lawv tej hnub lawv tua tau npua ntau los tsawg los tsawg xwb nav ces tsi txaus noj li ces thiaj li mus khwv ua dag ua zog. Kuv li mas kuv, ntawm kuv tus kheej kiag mas kuv coj coj me nyuam ces kuv cov me nyuam tseem me ces kuv kwj tsis tau mus ua tab sis lawv txiv yeej mus ua zog hos mus ua Thaib zog cog nyom lauj…mus ua ub ua no tej, txiav taws tej rau Thaib lauj tej ntawd.

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Es yog thaum nyob hauv xoom ntawd ne, koj nyob li cas xwb, koj dai me nyuam thiab koj tseem tu vaj tse ub no nyob nev yog zoo li cas, los yeej tsi muaj li? Thaum ntawd ces peb los nyob pem uas lawv lub As Phaws Puas naj, ces niam no yeej lam los yuav tau tej nyuag nqeeb tej es ua tau lub nyuag txaj pw rau cov niam tub pw nkaus xwb os tsi muaj…tsev nyob, tsi muaj dab tsi li ua tau lub tsev me me.. uas vov li 20, 30, 40 caum nqeeb kom txaus ua lub txaj rau peb pw. Ces nyob li ntawd tau 8 hli? Hwv nyob li ntawd tau 8 hli. Yog li es thaum nyob hauv xoom, thaum koj nyob hauv xoom nav koj xav hais tias tib neeg saib poj niam thiab txiv neej muaj nooj nqe nws txawv li cas xwb? Thaum ntawd mas yeej tsi paub saib txiv neej los yeej… tsi muaj nooj nqe li hos poj niam los yeej tsi muaj nooj nqi li… Rau qhov leej twg los tsi muaj nuj nqis li, khwv noj khwv haus, los mus ua thaib qhev mus ua Thaib zog xwb mas yeej yog, peb mas yeej yog txom nyem kawg nkaws li yeej tsi muaj ib yam dab tsi uas yuav txom nyem npaum li ntawd li.

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Tam sim no koj sim piav txog thaum es koj tuaj rau teb chaws Meskas thiab koj lub neej thaum ub nyuam qhuav tuaj txog nav zoo li cas nav. Yog vim li cas koj tsev neeg ho txiav txim siab tuaj teb chaws Meskas no? No… thaum txiav txim siab ces yog …kuv hais rau kuv tus txiv thiab kuv cov me nyuam, thaum ntawd ces yus ob niam txiv ces yus yeej los tham yus los sab laj hais tias yog li ntawd ib yam li uas koj, peb txiv mas nws yeej yog ib tug nais khu nyob teb chaws Nplog thiab ces, kuv hais tias koj twb yog ib tug paub qab hau thiab ces, yog peb tsi mus ces tsam ib ntsis cov kwv cov tij tuaj mus lawm ces tuaj txog teb chaws no ces peb twb tsi tau tes ces wb twb yog ob tug paub qab hau me ntsis ces wb yuav tsum mus, wb txiav txim siab mus es txawm ntuj tsaus ntuj kaj los wb yuav tsum mus, es wb coj wb cov me nyuam ua ntej mus es thaum twg yog tias cov laus ho tuaj txog thiab tej nkauj tej muam ho tuaj tuaj txog kwv tij neej tsa ho tuaj txog los wb thaij tos tau no ces wb thiaj txiav txim siab tuaj ces, thaum uas peb ho tuaj xam phaj ces no ho xam phaj tau ces peb thiaj li, peb cov niam txiv tub thiaj txiav txim siab tuaj. Thaum peb tuaj txog rau teb chaws Meskas no thaum peb poob kiag peb lub lav poob ntawd yog tom uas niam no Milwaukee Wisconsin nawb, mas… thaum uas nyuam qhuav tuaj txog ntua es lawv tsi tau xauj vaj xauj tsev rau peb nyob es peb lam tuaj nrog cov sponsors nyob es lawv muab tau ib lub nyuag txaj rau wb ob tug laus pw ho ib lub txaj rau cov me nyuam pw xwb mas, luag noj as ham tej los yeej txawv, noj mov noj zaub los luag yeej noj tej nyuag khob cij tej xwb, yeej txawv, yus yeej xav hais tias ntshai tuaj yuam kev lawm xwb, es coj tej me nyuam

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tuaj zoo li ntawd xwb es tej me nyuam tsi muaj ab tsi noj li mas yus yeej hlub cov me nyuam thiab yus hlub yus ob niam txiv mas ib tug yeej hlub ib tug yeej tsi pom qab hais hlo li. No.. peb nyob ib…. hnub… lawv mus ua lawv laj lawv kam lawm, lawv khwv khwv li niam no peb khwv ces lawv cov sponsors lawv mus ua lawv laj lawv kam lawm ib hnub ces luag yeej pov rhees ob pob nyuag khob cij dog dig los rau ntawm rooj hais tias nej tshaib plab ces nej noj cov no xwb no, tej me nyuam ces lawv kuj lam noj taus lawv kuj noj hos kuv mas kuv noj tsi taus li, kuv noj tsi taus kuv ntsia tej zaub tej mov mas kuv kua muag yeej poob nthav hais tias ntshai yuav tuaj tuag tshaib xwb no, tab sis nyob li, muaj li peb vas thiv os tej ntawd ces lawv ho mus xauj tau ib lub tsev rau peb nyob ces, muaj ib tug Nplog nws hu ua Xas Faj no nav, nws yog ib tug nai tsav nyooj hoom nyob teb chaws Nplog thiab ces nws tuaj txog nws thiaj li… End side A. I: S: Ces koj tab tom piav txog thaum es nej mus nyob nej lawm es muaj lub tsev xauj es mam li muaj ib tug poj nplog tuaj qhia nej… aus ib tug txiv neej nplog. Ces tus txiv neej nplog ntawd thiaj li tuaj…coj ib tug me nyuam Suav tuaj ces thiaj tuaj coj peb mus yuav txhuv, thiaj coj peb mus yuav zaub yuav mov hauv… ib lub lab suav ces nws thiaj qhia peb hais tias nej yuav noj ces peb yog neeg asia ces peb yuav noj ces peb tuaj yuav hauv lub lab no xwb ces peb thiaj mam mus yuav tau mov yuav tau… zaub….yuav tau fawm yuav tau ub tau no tej los txog ces nws yeej hais rau peb tias yuav noj li cas los kav tsij noj, es noj tag los mam mus yuav dua nws hais li ntawd tab sis mas no peb txiv tsi kam noj ntau li, peb txiv tias ib tug qaib los yuav tsum ua ob peb pluag noj rau qhov tsam ib ntsis ces luag ho hais tias yus lav, cas yuav lav tau ib yig niag neeg es noj ntau tas npaum li ntawd es yuav npaum twg los tsi txaus noj, ces yus yeej yog ntshai ntshai Meskas thiab ces noj me me kom yus tej me nyuam tub noj nyob taus xwb, tab sis mas ib ntus tom qab no ces hmoob tuaj coob zuj zus ces zoo nkaus li uas peb thiaj paub hais tias peb muaj peb nyiaj ntawm uas lab thab npas pab thiab nav, ces niam no ib leeg hais qhia ib leeg hais tias yus yeej muaj yus nyiaj tuaj tim ub tuaj yus yog neeg tawg tsov tawg rog lawv yeej pab nyiaj txiag rau yus siv thiab es kom txhob txhawj txhawj, thiab txhob ntshai ntshai thiab es kom ab tsij siv, ab tsi mus yuav rau tej me nyuam noj kom tej me nyuam tsau thiab no. Ces thaum ntawd ces thiaj li tsis tshua ntshai zuj zus, ces thiaj li mus yuav ub yuav no los rau tej me nyuam noj. Thiab no lawv muaj cov nyiaj pab yuav zaub noj uas ib yam li uas tam sim no ces yog cov nyiaj foodstamp tej ntawd no ces lawv thiaj li muab tej ntawd los pab rau yus mi ntsis, tab sis thaum uas peb nyuam qhuav tuaj txog ntawd mas peb tseem muaj nyiaj ntsuab mus yuav ib yam li uas yog hais tias koj yuav kom tau 200 nyiaj muas noj no ces yus tseem ho muab yus nyiaj ntsuab mus yuav ces yus thiaj tau li 200 nyiaj muas noj ntawd, ces peb yeej yog noj li ntawd ces mam li mus kawm ntawv. Cov sponsors mam li tuaj coj mus cuv npe kawm ntawv, ces mam mus pib kawm ntawv. Kuv li ces kuv yeej yog hais tias muaj me nyuam me thiab tsi muaj neeg zov ces yeej yog tus txiv mus ua hauj lwm los txog ces tus txiv, caij npav (bus) los txog ces tus txiv los zov me nyuam ces kuv mam li caij

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npav ces kuv mam li ho mus kawm ntawv xwb, ces no thiaj li tau muaj li 2 xyoos ntawd ces peb thiaj li ho xav tias tej zaum ws, yuav tso cov sponsors tseg tso peb ho yuav los nrhiav hmoob thiab, nrhiav kwv nrhiav tij thiab es peb los nrhiav kawm ntawv thiab rau qhov nws los tsi tau kev kawm ntawv hos yus los yus yeej tsi tau kev kawm ntawv li thiab ces cia uh khiav los nrhiav hmoob no ces peb thiaj khiav los rau tom Minnesota no lawm. I: S: I: S: Ces thaum tuaj teb chaws no ces koj kwv yees muaj pes tsawg xyoo xwb? Ntshai kuv muaj 25 xwb poj . 25 xwb lov ?…thaum koj tuaj txog teb chaws nov lawm nav, yam uas xyaum yooj yim thiab kawm sai tshaj plaws yog dab tsi xwb rau koj nav? Teb chaws no mas yeej tsi muaj ib qho yuav yooj yim kiag li nawb tab sis qhov yooj yim tshaj plaws mas yog tsi tau txiav dej txiav taws es cia li qhib ntawd es ua zaub ua mov noj nkaus xwb ho ha ha….qhov no thiaj yog qhov yooj yim xwb…. Yam es koj xav hais tias nyuab tshaj plaws nav es kom hais tias yus nyob yus lub teb chaws es yus feel comfortable thiab nav es yog ab tsi? Kuv mas, ntawm kuv tus kheej kiag mas yog sau ntaub sau ntawv nawb, sau ntaub sau ntawv mas kuv yog yam uas xyaum nyuab tshaj plaws, thiab sau qeeb tshaj plaws rau qhov ib txhiab ib txhis yus niam yus txiv yeej tsi pub yus kawm ntaub kawm ntawv ces yus yeej tsi tau kawm ntaub kawm ntawv li ces yus yeej tsuas yog paub lo lus xwb ho tus ntawv es sau mas kuv yeej tseem sau qeeb. Yam dab tsi uas yog yam hais tias pab koj yoog tau sai, tau kom sai nav ua rau lub neej es tshiab nyob rau teb chaws meskas no, yam dab tsi yog yam es koj muaj es pab tau koj yoog nrog luag tej thiab naj? Ces koj tab tom piav txog hais tias yam es hais tias zoo li tias nyob ntawm yus tus kheej nav txawm yog yus, yus tej yam es yus xyaum tau nyob teb chaws Nplog, los ab tsi es ua yus yoog nyob teb chaws no es sai tshaj plaws? Yoog ces….yus yoog yus lub neej .. yus compare yus lub neej rau teb chaws Nplog los rau lub ntawm no ces yus yoog tau zoo mas rau qhov teb chaws no mas ib yam li uas koj mus ua laj ua kam tej ces koj ho mus khwv nyiaj khwv txiaj coj los pab lub cuab lub yig ces zoo nkaus li uas yus ho ua tau yooj yim zog, ces yus yoog los mus rau tej me tub me nyuam, kawm ntaub kawm ntawv tej ntawd ces zoo nkaus li uas yoog lub neej tim ub los mus rau lub tim no mas tsi compare li nawb, yeej tsis, ib lub neej yeej piv tsi txog ib lub neej li tab sis mas ib yam li uas tuaj nyob teb chaws no mas nws txawv dua li ces koj tuaj yoog kiag lub no xwb ces koj yeej tso lub qub neej tid tseg lawm, ces zoo nkaus li uas yus yeej tuaj raws kiag lub neej teb chaws no xwb ces zoo nkaus li uas yus coj txawv lawm thiab naj.

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Ws, kev txawj es zoo li hais tias yus xyaum tau ntawm yus niam los yus txi tsev nav, tej yam es hais puas ta wb piav piav txog nav, ntawm es puas pab tau koj pib lub neej tshiab nyob rau teb chaws meskas no thiab? Oh !.. tau kawg, yus, yus niam yus txiv qhia yus ua lub neej los mus mas lawv yeej kom yus uh, uas niam no txhob tub nkeeg lauj, yus txhob ua neeg phem lauj tej ntawd ces yus niam yus txiv tej lus mas yus yeej khaws nkaus los coj rau lub neej tim ub lub neej tim no los yus yeej coj yus tib lub siab qub thiab yus yeej coj yus lub neej qub, tab sis lub dag lub zog khwv mas peb nyob teb chaws no mas peb muaj peev xwm khwv dua thiab peb muaj, niam no, muaj txoj cai vaj huam sib luag li uas luag cov Meskas thiab peb khwv tau ib yam li ntawd, nyob ntawm koj txawj npaum cas koj ntse npaum cas ces koj khwv tau raws li koj qhov txawj qhov ntse ntawd. Koj puas xav hais tias poj niam lub neej nyob teb chaws no zoo tshaj li tim, tim ub? Kuv xav hais tias kuv yog ib tug neeg laus mas kuv xav hais tias cov tuaj loj hlob nyob teb chaws no los yog cov uas loj hlob nyob tim ub tuaj lawm es, tuaj txog teb chaws no es tsi tau laus laus no ces zoo dua nawb, zoo dua nyob tim ub lawm xyov pig tsawg npaug nawb. Es puas zoo dua rau koj? Kuv xav hais tias zoo, zoo zog thiab mas, yuav tsi dua tshaj plaws kuv xav tias yeej zoo me ntsis dua li nyob tim ub thiab. Rau qhov thaum tuaj txog koj nyuam qhuav muaj 25 xyoos xwb nev. Yeah. Koj puas xav hais tias lub teb chaws no yus tuaj nyob xwb tab sis mas yog yus lub teb chaws lawm thiab, yog yus lub vaj lub tsev lawm thiab. Kuv yeej xav hais tias txawm nyob thaj av twg los yog niam no…yej yog yus thaj thiab, yog nyob teb chaws no los cav tsi yog yus ib yig xwb hos neeg coob leej, ntau ntau haiv neeg tuaj nyob thiab nyaj yuav zoo ib yam thiab. Koj tuaj, yog li koj tuaj txog teb chaws Meskas no es koj puas tau ua xaam xaj meskas naj? Kuv ua lawm mas . Thiab koj puas mus nrog luag tej uas.. pov ntawv xaiv nom thiab? Kuv mus zaum puav thiab.

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Mus zaum puav thiab lov, puas muaj ib co tib neeg hmoob es tam sim no nav es lawv mus, lawv ho mus raug xaiv, nrog Meskas sib tw ua nom thiab nav ? Koj xav hais tias cov tib neeg ntawd koj puas pom hais tias zoo thiab los tsi zoo, los yog li cas? Nyob ntawm muaj peev xwm, nyob ntawm muaj peev xwm kuj zoo thiab tab sis mas uas ib yam li uas yog tias peb cov hmoob nyob teb chaws no mas, tej tus kuj zoo tej tus kuj ua tau tsi zoo thiab kuv kuj tsi paub thiab. Nyob ntawm tus tib neeg? Nyob ntawm tus tib neeg. Ces tam sim no wb sim tham txog poj niam tej hauj lwm uas ua hauv lub vaj lub tsev mus rau lawm nav. Thaum teb chaws ua tsov ua rog naj, koj puas paub txog thiab? Thaum teb chaws ua tsov ua rog? Koj puas paub txog thiab zoo li hais tias koj puas hnov xov ntawd qhov twg los, ntawm leej twg los nav? Oh !… ua tsov ua rog mas tas nrho me niam ntxawm, tej txiv ntxawm, tej nus, tej dab laug tej puav leej mus ua tsov ua rog tag nrho yeej tsi yog hnov ntawm leej twg los xwb, yeej pom kiag ntawm lub qhov muag li hos. Ces yus yeej, niaj hnub paub txog hnov txog hais tias? Niaj hnub txhawj txog, niaj hnub ntshai tsam, muaj teeb meem txog… tej ntawd li. Puas muaj tej tus nom tswv es thawj coj es ua tseem ceeb, rau koj, zoo li hais tias koj, koj pom nav, es koj nyiam los puas yog hais tias koj hawm, koj hawm txog lawv thiab hais tias lawv yog cov thawj coj no na? Koj hais nyob sab tim ub? Kuv hais nyob sab tim ub. Tim ub mas…lawv yeej nav thwm cov nom cov tswv mas, cov nom cov tswv mas lawv yeej nav thwm tshaj plaws li yog pom ces yeej paub hais tias tus ntawd yog nom no li mas. Es koj puas, luag tej nav thwm thiab tab sis koj puas nav thwm lawv thiab maj?

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Kuv kuj nav thwm thiab. Nav thwm thiab, lawv yog leej twg? Ib yam li uas tej toj xeem Nais Npab os…tej ntawd los yus yeej thwm hais tias luag yog ib tug nom.. tej nom thab ham ib yam li Nais Phoo Vaj Pov os…lawv cov nom thab ham ntawd los yus yeej paub hais tias lawv yog nom yog tswv hos, ib yam li yog tej Doctors lauj, tej uas niam no kawm ntawv qhib siab zog me ntsis los yus yeej paub tias cov ntawd mas kawm ntawv siab, yus yeej tau txo hwj chim zog me ntsis rau cov ntawd thiab no mas. Nyob teb chaws Meskas no nav, koj pom hais tias poj niam kev ua thawj coj nav nws pauv li cas lawm xwb? Nyob teb chaws no mas, zoo heev nawb, nyob teb chaws no mas poj niam thiab txiv neej los yeej muaj vaj huam sib luag li, no tej me nyuam los lawv kawm ntaub kawm ntawv txawj ntse los lawv yeej muaj cai mus nrog luag twv, twv laj twv kam lauj, mus khiav nom khiav tswv tej ntawd, khiav laj khiav kam tej ntawd nyob teb chaws no. Kev hloov ntau heev li lawm, thaum es nyob teb chaws Nplog puas muaj poj niam ua thawj coj thiab los tsi muaj? Yuav ua thawj kiag mas kuj tsi muaj tab sis mas yog ua hauj lwm rau tej nyuag thab nab qha os ua nyuag nais maum raws tej nyuag thab ham os tej ntawd no yus kuj pom tus puav lawm thiab mas. Es yog li es nyob teb chaws nov nab poj niam hmoob muaj cai ua tau tej yam dab tsi txawv uas thaum es nyob teb chaws Nplog thiab teb chaws Thaib es ua … tej zaum yuav ua tsi tau li? Nyob teb chaws no mas yeej tsi muaj qhov yuav ua tsi tau kiag li nawb, nyob teb chaws no mas yus ntsia tag nrho sawv daws tej tub tej ntxhais, sawv daws kawm ntaub kawm ntawv ib yam nkaus mas lawv mas lawv yeej muaj cai ib yam nkaus li mas, lawv yeej coj tau hauj lwm ua, txiv neej ua tau los poj niam yeej ua tau, poj niam hais tias mus ua thab ham los poj niam yeej kam mus ua thab ham li thiab no, ces poj niam yeej yog kheej tshaj plaws li lawm tsuas yog lawv tias lawv yog tus ntxhais los lawv yeej muaj peev xwm ua tau li tus tub thiab no, lawv yeej yog ib tug neeg thiab no, lawv yeej yog thab ham ib yam nkaus. Koj pom hais tias poj niam hmoob, kev txhawb pab peb haiv neeg hmoob nav, uas dhau ntawm yus lub vaj lub tsev no mus xwb nav es koj xav kom tib neeg nco qab li cas thiab, txog poj niam hmoob lub dag lub zog es pab pab hmoob thiab nav?

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Hais txog ntawm uas qhov uas pab hmoob cov poj niam ntawd mas kuv yeej xav tias sawv daws txawm khiav khiav dej khiav num thiab pab pab los yeej muaj txiaj muaj ntsig thiab yeej pab tau rau yus cov neeg tawv daj hais tias kom muaj vaj huam sib luag ib yam li lwm haiv neeg thiab coj tau zoo ib yam li lwm haiv neeg. Txiv neej muaj peev xwm npaum li cas los cov poj niam yeej muaj peev xwm npaum li ntawd. Ua laj ua kam qhov twg los no txawm yog tias ib lub rooj sab laj no muaj txog li plaub tsib tug txiv neej los yeej muaj txog li ob tug peb tug poj niam lawm mas kuv yeej xav hais tias yeej zoo kawg. Puas muaj tej yam uas dab tsi wb tsi tau tham txog es koj ho xav ntxiv rau ntawm es kab xev (cassette) no thiab, wb noog tas li nov lawm laiv. Kuv xav tias peb tuaj txog teb chaws no lawm no peb tej tub tej ntxhais los yeej muaj muaj peev xwm ib yam nkaus li luag lwm haiv neeg lawm. Txawj ntaub txawj ntawv los cav tsi yog dab thawj, sawv daws kawm xwb los sawv daws yeej txawj. Peb yog ib yam neeg peb tsi paub luag lus, luag lus mab lus suav peb tsi paub los peb tej me tub me nyuam tuaj txawj ho hais lus npliag ib yam nkaus li niam no tej neeg uas luag ib txwm nyob rau lub teb lub chaws no lawm. Kuv xav hais tias peb txoj kev txoj cai uas peb nyob peb lub teb lub chaws es yuav coj li qub qab mas tej me nyuam tej zaum yuav tsi coj lawm, lawv yuav coj txoj cai kom haum tas nrho rau sawv daws yuav tau, poj niam ua tau los txiv neej ua tau txob cem hais tias no poj niam li poj niam tsi muaj peev xwm es poj niam ua tsi tau. Tej ntxhais, tej tub tej ntxhais los sawv daws yeej muaj vaj huam sib luag ib yam nkaus li, tub los ntse npaum li ntawd, ntxhais los ntse npaum li ntawd no niam no peb tuaj nyob rau teb chaws no lawm peb tej me tub me nyuam kuj ntsia peb ua niam ua txiv los kuj yog niam yog txiv, tab sis peb ntsia peb tej me tub me nyuam los kuj yog yus yug los thaum nyob ntawm yus ces yog yus yug tab sis mas thaum mus ua tod lawm lawv kuj ua nom ua tswv lawv kuj ua laj ua kam khov khwb kho ib yam li luag tej neeg lawm thiab, sawv daws yuav tsum saib sawv daws tej me tub me nyuam kom tsim txiaj thiab yuav tsum tsa tub tsa ntxhais lub hwj chim thiab peb cov laus mas laus laus lawm, niam no yuav tag kev cia siab tab sis peb cia siab tias peb tej tub tej ntxhais lawv loj lawv hlob lawm lawv yuav los ua peb niam peb txiv ces lawv yuav coj, txawm yog ua hauj lwm rau hauv lub koom haum twg los thov ib tsoom niam ib tsoom txiv saib tej tub rau nqi los thov saib tej ntxhais rau nqi thiab, peb tej ntxhais los peb yeej yug tau los yeej muaj peev xwm ib yam nkaus li ib leeg tub, hos ib leeg tub los yeej muaj peev xwm ib yam nkaus ib leeg ntxhais, peb nyob teb chaws no, tej zaum tej tub twb tsis rau siab kawm ntawv npaum li tej ntxhais, tej tub twb ntse tsi npaum tej ntxhais, tab sis mas kuv xav hais tias txawm li cas los niam no kom peb nav thwm tub nav thwm ntxhais ib yam nkaus. Yus tus nxhais mus ua lub neej, mus yuav dua ib tug txiv lawm los yeej yog yus tus tub yus yug ib yam, ho yus tus tub mus yuav tau ib tus nyab los txog los yeej yog yus yug ib yam, mas kuv tsuas hais li no xwb. Kuv yog Sua Vwj nawb, kuv yog niam no niam Yaj Nplooj, txawm hais tias nej txawm hnov tej lus no es, lo yog nej ho yuav lo tsi yog los muab pov tseg, peb txoj kev tawg teb tawg chaws mas yog yuav piav mas ob peb daig kab xev twb tsi tas, yog li ntawd kuv tsuas hais li no xwb. Nyob zoo nej sawv daws.

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Ua tsaug. Tsi ua cas. End of Sua Vu Yang’s interview.

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