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Interview with Kim Yang

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Kim Yang is the half sister of Bao Vang. Born Va Vang in 1969 in Long Cheng, Laos, her family immigrated to the U.S. in April, 1980 from Ban Ve Nai (Npaab Vib Nais). She finished high school and studied computer programming for six months. She has been married for fifteen years and has five children. Currently, she works as a computer programmer. One of her duties is adapting forms to make them easier for the Hmong to use. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED: Biographical information and religious affiliation. Childhood-school attendance, duties at home, community service, skills taught, social activities as a child, aspirations as a child. Hmong women's roles-decision making inside and outside of home and clan, women in leadership roles and how they are seen in the community, what women do to support their families, family planning, when women feel respected or disrespected. The war and living in refugee camps-memories of fleeing Laos, of refugee camps, difference in treatment of men and women in the camps. Adjustments since coming to the U.S.-skills needed to adjust, learning English, skills from Laos and Thailand that are adaptable or useable in the U.S., citizenship, leadership roles for women in the U.S. versus Laos, public contributions by Hmong women. COMMENTS ON INTERVIEW: The interview was conducted predominantly in Hmong. The Hmong transcript and an English translation are bound together for this interview.

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1:35:49

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KIM YANG
Narrator

MAI NENG MOUA
Interviewer

ORAL HISTORY OFFICE

Funded by a grant from the Minnesota Legislature. Copyright © 2001 by Minnesota Historical Society All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Oral History Office, Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55102.

HMONG WOMEN’S ORAL HISTORY PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

Minnesota is home to one of the largest Hmong communities in the United States. More Hmong live in the Twin Cities than in any other urban area in the United States. Originally from Laos, the Hmong supported American troops during the Vietnam War. Beginning in 1976 and continuing in four waves until 1996, many came to the United States as political refugees. The Hmong have strong kinship and clan ties. Many who originally were resettled in other areas, chose to move to Minnesota to be close to family members and other relatives. The elder women’s experiences included maintaining home and family while their husbands fought alongside American soldiers in the Vietnam War. They fled their farms and villages and crossed the Mekong River into Thailand where they lived in refugee camps before resettling in the United States. The experiences of the oldest members of the community are vastly different from those who came here as children and those who were born in this country. Today, Hmong women work as teachers, lawyers, and decision makers in their respective positions— opportunities not available to them in their homeland. The youngest never experienced war or resettlement and are unfamiliar with the privations of their elders. This oral history project chronicles the contributions and experiences of Hmong women with ties to Minnesota. Members of the Hmong Women’s Action Team, a group of Hmong women community leaders and activists, interviewed each other and their mothers and grandmothers, and in one case her daughter. They share their stories of life in the Minnesota, Thailand, and Laos. Three generations from six different families are represented in this series of eighteen interviews. The interviews help provide a greater understanding of Hmong women’s roles in the home and community, challenges and successes in public and private realms, and across time and space.

KIM YANG

An Interview with

Kim Yang Narrator Mai Neng Moua Interviewer On December 17, 1999

For the Hmong Women’s Action Team Oral History Project Hmoob Thaj Yeeb Oral History Project

The transcript is presented in both English and Hmong.

Kim Yang
MNM: I guess my first question is what is your name? KY: My name before I got married was Va and my last name is Vang. Yes… Va Vang, but now I changed to Kim. MNM: Why did you change? KY: Because after I got married, I changed my name to Kim so right now, my last name is Yang, Kim Yang. MNM: Okay, but your maiden name is… KY: Va… Yes… The last name is Vang. Yes. MNM: Right now how old are you? KY: Right now I am thirty-one years old. MNM: Okay… How many children do you have? KY: I have five children, one girl, she is the oldest and four sons. MNM: How old are they? KY: The oldest one is fifteen, one at fourteen, one at ten, one at five, and the youngest is three years old. MNM: Okay… What grade did you finish in terms of education? KY: I finished high school and then I went to study to be a computer programmer for six months then I came out to work. MNM: Right now what kind of work do you do? KY: My job right now is to program the computer, create forms and go out and give training to the outside staff. MNM: Is this yours? Do you have your own organization or do you working for someone else?

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KY: I am working for someone else. Here are some of my job descriptions… I modify forms so that is easier for us to use. The second thing that I’m doing is to provide training to the internal people, the external people and also the contracted workers so that they know what to do. I also provide help to those who need help on the forms. I also help them with those too. MNM: How long have you been doing your job? KY: I have been doing it for ten years. MNM: Oh, is this the job that you went to school for, computer programming? KY: Yes. MNM: Okay… That is good. What about your job, how much do you get paid? KY: Right now they pay me $33,000 per year. MNM: Do you work at other jobs too? KY: No, I don’t. This is the only job that I have. MNM: Okay… Right now whom do you live with? KY: Right now I live with my husband and my children. MNM: Do you live with your husband’s parents? KY: We don’t have grandmother and grandfather any more, they passed away a long time ago. We have a sister that is about 60 years old and she lives with us because she still single so she is helping us with the babysitting. MNM: Good. Okay… What do you say, how old were you when you got married? KY: I have been married for fifteen years. MNM: How old were you when you get married? KY: I got married when I was sixteen years old. MNM: Okay… What about your husband, how old was he? KY: My husband was twenty-five years old because he is nine years older than me. MNM: Okay… Are there other wives too or are you the only one?

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KY: He married only me. There are no other wives. MNM: How long have you been in this country? KY: We’ve been here for nineteen years and six months. MNM: Nineteen years and six months. KY: We came to this country in April of 1980. MNM: Oh… Okay, what camp did you leave from when you came to this country? KY: When we came to this country, we came from Ban Ve Nai (Npaab Vib Nais). MNM: Okay. Because of your age, you were not born in this country, where were you born? KY: I was born in Long Cheng, Laos. It’s in the district of Seng Khoung (Xeev Khuam). MNM: What is your clan? KY: I am a White Hmong and I married my husband who is also White Hmong too. MNM: Oh… Okay… What do you say, will there be any problem if you would have married a non-White Hmong? KY: I think that there will not be any problems. It’s up to the person, but for me regardless of what kind of Hmong you married it can be White Hmong, Blue Hmong or other Hmong, if you two really love each other then there will be no problem. MNM: Are you a Christian? KY: Before I married my husband, I was not a Christian, but after I married my husband, I am a Christian. My husband and his family have been Christians since 1961, because back them there were lots of deaths and they had lost lots of their children. That is why his mom and dad became Christians and we are still Christians even until now. We believe in God. MNM: In our Hmong ladies, if you married a husband and whatever he believes, do we just follow? I mean that if you were a Christian, but married to a non-Christian, what will it be like? KY: I think that is up to the individual, but in my case it’s kind of different because I don’t want to do as the older ladies would have done. But for me when I was with my 11

mother and father, we did not go to church at all, but because we lived with other American kids, I used to go to church with them so this is not a new thing for me. Even though my husband was a born Christian, we seldom go to church too. When I married him, I took him to church. MNM: Then you took him to church? KY: He seldom goes to church so I took him to church. When we first started to go, we always fought. We fought every Sunday. But after awhile he saw that my reasons were the right one so he went with me. Even though he was a Christian, he seldom goes to church. MNM: Why didn’t he go, because his family all went? KY: Even though they were Christians, but because his mother and father had passed away long time ago and he lived with his brother who did not go to church that is why it’s hard for him to go. When after I married him, I took him to church, I forced him to go so now we are attending church regularly. MNM: You were a person who did not go to church in the past, how come now you are so motivated to go to church. KY: Because I believe that when we came to this new country, right now our parents are getting older and leaving us young couples. If we don’t change the way we do thing such as our religions, let’s say if someone in your household passes away, we will not know what to do. We have to learn to go to church and just in the event that there is someone who passed away in your household, so you can get help and know what to do. I believe that we need to change, because we are living in a new country that has lots of changes, so we need to change too. MNM: Because some say that if you do that or go to church, you are no longer Hmong. What is your answer to them? KY: I think that religion is not what determines that you are Hmong or not. Regardless of your religion, you are still Hmong the only thing that changes is the way you believe. It doesn’t matter if you are a Christian, believe in Buddha, or a Moslem, or still carrying our old tradition. You need to hold on tight to what you believe otherwise you will lose your faith and then you may feel like you are not Hmong. But regardless of what you believe, as long as you are still act like a Hmong and don’t change the way that you’re thinking such as if you believe in Christianity, then you are no longer Hmong, but then you are still Hmong.

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MNM: What about the difference in what we believe? Some of us believe in Christianity, but others believe in the old traditional religions. Do you thing there is going to be a problem? KY: Right now I knew that there are some problems with that too because I have seen them with my own eyes. For example, let’s say that a woman who wanted to be a Christian, but her children do not believe in Christianity, the children were afraid about what will happen when their mother passes away? What will they do? The mother on the other hand is afraid that once she passes away her children might not know what to do, if they still carry the old tradition. This is why she became a Christian. But as a Christian, she will receive help from the church in addition to her children so it’s a good thing. In this country we need to see what will be the best way for us then change with it. MNM: Now I would like to ask you some questions about when you were a teenager and you were very young. Did you go to school when you were young? KY: When I was six years old, I went to school for about three months. That is it because I was the oldest and my mom and dad needed help with baby-sitting, doing house chores, and cooking so I had to help them out. At that time, my dad got drafted to join the army so he went and left my mom with all of us. So my mother told me to come home to help baby-sit and cook for my brother and sisters. I need to help out so that my mother can go to work or farm so that we can have food to eat. So I did not have chance to attend school at all. I went to school for about two or three months and that was it. When we arrived in Thailand, I went to school for about six months, but like I said there is no one to help out my mom and dad. So I got out to help my mom and dad so I did not have any school after that. MNM: When you were in Laos and you went to school when you were six years old, what school was that? KY: It’s the school that located right in Long Cheng, Laos. It’s the one that near the market that was burned. They called it the market that was burned… MNM: Who was teaching, Hmong or Laos? KY: There was half Hmong and half Laos. MNM: What about your teacher, is he/she Hmong or Laos? KY: My teacher is Hmong.

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MNM: Oh… Were you studying the Hmong language, the Hmong alphabet, or the Laotian’s language? KY: Actually we studied only the Laotian Language and not the Hmong language. MNM: Did you have to pay to go to that school? KY: Yes, we did. We made a monthly payment to the teacher. MNM: Oh… Okay… Since like I heard somewhere that they did not let girls attend school, how come you could go to school? KY: The reason I went to school was not because we were the son and daughter of a leader, but because my dad was a very close soldier to General Vang Pao. Because my dad was the most educated in my family and relatives and he also believe that regardless of if you were boys or girls, education is very important. You needed to learn so that you will know what to do regardless of where you are at. That was the belief of my dad and that is why my dad asked me to go to school. MNM: But, were you the oldest? KY: Yes, I was the oldest. MNM: Okay, okay, when you were a young child, what were some of the duties that you performed. KY: Oh… The duties that I have done were… I baby-sat my brothers and sisters so that my mom and dad can go to work or farm. I went to get some water so that my family can use it. I went to get some firewood even though I could not cut the wood. My mom cut them and I picked them up. I went to help my mom cook so that my family can eat and I started to learn how to do handicrafts when I was very small so I can sell them. I also helped my mom feed the livestock and went out with my mom to work so that we can get support money for our family. MNM: What about your family? How many people were in your household? KY: We have eight people. My mom and dad have four boys and two girls. I am the oldest and the other girl was the youngest. The four boys were in the middle so together we have a total of eight people, which is a lot. MNM: That is good. Do you perform any community service work? KY: I had helped my neighbors and my relatives such as I helped them to baby-sit so that they were free to go to work or farm. Sometimes I helped them get some water and they also gave me some money to help me with my school. After we arrived in Thailand, I

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remember that we, the students went to cut some bamboo to make a school for us to study. MNM: When you were a young girl, what are the duties that you did or were taught by your parents? KY: My mother and my father taught me lots of things. They taught me how to do handicrafts and how to cook for the family, so that when we grew up and moved on to start our own family we will know how to do that. They also taught us how to cut and gather firewood, pick vegetables and clean them, feed the livestock, and take care of my younger brothers and sister. They taught me how to dress so that I will look clean. They taught me how to earn money for a living. They also taught me how to study in school to prepare for my future. They taught me how to respect the elderly, following the rules, and be an honorable girl, don’t lie, set a good example for my younger brothers and sister and my friends and neighbors. They also taught and encouraged me that when I grow up I won’t be selfish, love everybody, love your family and your neighbors. MNM: Those things that your parent taught you, what about your brothers? Are they being taught the same or differently because they were boys? KY: My mom and dad taught my brother the same things that they taught me except for a few other things that they taught them a little more because they are boys and they tend not to listen as well as girls. My dad passed away five years after we arrived in this country so that left only my mom with all of us. It was very hard for my mom to raise all of us. My mom has to teach my brothers more because they were boys and they tend to play more so my mom taught them more than she taught me. MNM: Those that you had mentioned were the ones that your parents taught you. How important are they and are you going to teach those to your children? KY: Those that my parents taught me, I know it has a very important impact on my life. I don’t know what my life will be like without those words, but I’m glad that my parents gave birth to me, they raised me, and they taught me how to be a good person. We, as children, regardless of if you are a boy or a girl, we have to respect our parents, focus on our education, and must learn how to be a good role model for others. Regardless of how old you are, when you were a teenager or after you got married, we need to set good example for our children so that they have some to look after [follow.] MNM: Okay, when you were a teenager, what do you do for fun? KY: Back then, I was not that big either. When we were in Laos, I had gone with my girl friends and cousins to the New Year Celebration. We went to throw ball (pov pob), compete in pickup water (ev dej) and see who get the most water in their jar. We played jump rope, instead we use a string of rubber bands and played hide and seek (Pos Nkaum).

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MNM: Is it called Hide and Seek (Pos Nkaum)? KY: Yes. We also went shopping with my cousins at the country markets. MNM: Ah… When you were a teenager, in this country we have dating, back then did you have dating? Such as talking to a boy or a girl, can you talk a little bit about dating and what is the different between then and now? KY: When we were back in Laos, I was very young so I don’t know much about it, but I saw my cousins. When they date boys, normally the boy came to stay outside of her house, next to the wall where the girl sleeps and they started whispering to each other. I had no idea what they were talking about because they just whispered to each other. That is the way we dated back then because they were very shy. But after we came to this country, yes, I have dated before, but because our house were so secure, the boys cannot stay outside and whisper to us. If they want to date with us, they need to get our parents’ permission and if my parents said, “Okay,” then they can come and see me at my house. MNM: Regarding the date system with our Hmong people, you have children who are turning fifteen years old, coming into the teenage years. At what age do you say is the right age for them to date? KY: I think that, right now my two teenagers who are fourteen and fifteen, they haven’t started yet because we taught them that they have to focus and put education first because this is the land of opportunity so they need to focus and put education first. We taught them don’t rush into dating because if you date early, you will get married early and if date late, you will get married late. I suggested to my children that they have to wait until they are seventeen years old or on the 11th grade before they start dating so that at least you finish your high school before you get married. At that time you can start dating and while you are going through college, get to know each other more and then they can get married after you finish your college. I told them not to date too early because you may get attached to him/her and then you end up getting married too early. We also told our children that education is the number one in their life. If they have the education before they get married then they will be successful, but if they don’t have the education and get married too early they will suffer and their life will be much tougher. That is not all, you will not be able to help your children as much as you wanted to because you don’t have the knowledge to help them out. MNM: Did you say that you were sixteen when you got married? KY: Yes. MNM: What about your friends, about how old were they when they got married? Are they older then you or younger then you? KY: At that time I had lots of friends and some of them are younger then me about thirteen or fourteen years old and they were married, but others are much older then me 16

before they got married at a later date. But I felt so sorry for my cousins and my friends that went to high school with me. Some of them got married before me and other got married after me, but most of those couples were divorced. After about four to five years into their marriage, like the Americans said that the first ten years of your marriage are the years that you two are still growing and have the most crises. If they are not patient with each other then they will not survive those years and finally their lives will be falling apart. Lots of my friends’ marriages were falling apart. MNM: Most Americans out there think that the reason the Hmong people get married when they were very young (13-14 years old) is because of our culture or tradition. Do you think that is true or not? KY: I think that back in our old country that may be true because our country was a farming country. We have to farm to survive so we don’t have enough education, opportunities and the chance to do something else. Even though you are an educated lady, but there will be no job for you to do. So most of our elderly believed, that as a woman, once you are married, you will come home and take care of your children, stay home and take care of your household. If you do that then they will say that you are an important woman, so our opportunities were very limited. But I believe that after we got to this country, there were a few that married very early. Right now I see that there are lots of Hmong women that were still single between 20 and 30 years old. They finished college and some of them already found good jobs, some of them were leaders in different organizations and others were leaders with their household and their families. I believe that right now our Hmong ladies have changed a lot. There are many of them that have finished their education, got a good job and are becoming leaders and earn a lot more money than before. This is to show us that the Hmong women have jumped a huge step toward success and we have changed a lot. MNM: Okay… When you were a teenage girl, what are the things that you wanted to accomplish for yourself when you grew up? KY: I had many dreams or wants. When I was a young child I dreamed of many, many things because my parents were not rich and we were struggling so I always dream of having more stuff. One of the things I wanted was to get a husband that loves me, so he and I can work hard toward our goal to help our family. After I got married, I don’t want him to have an affair with someone else, instead concentrate on our own life so we can get good jobs to help our family. We need to help each other, teaching each other even though one of us don’t know as much as the other. I remember when we first got married, I didn’t know much at all, but my husband taught me how to cook, take care of our home, and even encouraged me to finish school. There are some things that I don’t know, but he taught me and that is what I expected from him, so I got what I wanted.

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The second thing that I wanted is to have is a home to live in. It does not have to be a nice home, but as long as I know that this is my house. That is not all, I also wanted to get a higher education. Even though I only finish high school and went for six months of computer training, but I found a good job. So I am satisfied with my job because I like what I do and it is challenging for me. I wanted to have more friends and good friends so that they don’t lead me to do the wrong thing. Finally, I wanted happiness in my life and my family so that there is no hardship and obstacles in my life. MNM: Within the Hmong people, there are many men that married more then one wives. Are you concerned about that? KY: That is one of the things that concerned me the most. So before I married him, I did my research on my husband’s family too. But within my husband’s family, there is no one married to more then one wife. This is true especially my husband’s immediate family. They like to do nice things to each other, help one another and that is why I married him. After I married him, I noticed that they are very generous and very nice people. MNM: You have mentioned a little about your friends. It looks like the Hmong ladies… I am still a daughter, the daughter of my mom. I am still single so I like to ask you a question because you were married. When you got marry, did you live with your husband and his family? Who are your friends? KY: When I was still single, I had a lot of friends, but after I got married to my husband for a period of time, I did not have any friends at all. This is because I don’t know how to make friends with anybody. I was afraid that I might have made the wrong kind of friends. If I made the wrong choice with the wrong kind of friends then they might lead me to do the wrong things and they could ruin my life, so I was very afraid. When I married my husband, I didn’t have any friends at all, but now I have lots of friends because I… The number one thing I did was that I became a Christian and I attended church regularly. I joined the women’s group at the church to do God’s work and have lots of activities together, so I have lots of friends. That is not all, I also have lots of friends who are non-Christian too because I went out to join them and volunteer my time to help them. There are other people that I knew there who are becoming my friends too. This is something good within my life. MNM: Okay… Are your friends the kind of friends that are outside of your husband’s clan? KY: Yes, they are. MNM: Okay. KY: Those friends that I had, they were not the inside people because there is no one whom is inside of our relatives that is very close friend to me. Most of my friends, 18

regardless of if they are Christian or not were the outside people. I have seen that as a person you needed to humble and respect others as yourself. You have to be straightforward, don’t have a bad temper, and be patient then you will have many friends. But if you have a bad temper, bad attitude, or not being patient with others then you will not have many friends. One of the things I had learned was that all you needed to do is to be humble and be patient with others. MNM: As we had seen in the past most of our Hmong men, they don’t want you to have outside friends because they were afraid that those friends may lead you to do something bad. But you on the other hand have a higher education, you go to church and have a good job. Is that the reason why you have more friends that were outside of your family? KY: Yes, that is true. MNM: Is your husband worried that your friends may lead you to do something bad? KY: In the first couple years of our marriage, my husband was worried that some of my friends may lead me to do something bad that could ruin our family. But for many years later, he learned to trust me more and more. The most important thing to remember is that as a Hmong lady regardless of how much education you had, how smart you are, and how good of a job you have, you need to concentrate on your marriage and family. Don’t think that because you are smarter than him then you should leave him. You need to respect your husband and know that without him you are a lady with no credibility. Other people will respect you when you both are together. MNM: What about your friends that were older then you, do you think they have as many friends as you do? Do they have friends outside of their husbands’ clan? Is that pretty unusual or is it normal? KY: Yes, for me, it’s normal. MNM: Yes, for you it may be normal, but what about comparing yourself to those older friends? KY: For me it’s normal, but I have seen that there were other older ladies out there did not have as many friends as I do. This is not because they don’t go to church, but their husband were afraid that if they started to make new friends then their friendships may ruin their lives. This is because there were a few of them that once they attained a higher education, found a good job, and they think that they were smarter than their husband, so they disrespect their husband then their marriage’s isn’t going anywhere. This is one of the many reasons why their husbands were afraid of letting them have friends. MNM: Okay.

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KY: For me, I think that it is very important that I have friends. If I don’t have any friends then my life has no purpose at all because my friends are part of my life, so that I can have freedom too or so that I can get support when I need it too. MNM: What about your husband, does he have as many friends as you do? KY: My husband does not have as many friends as I do. He has a few, but he does not have any best friends because he is a very quiet person. He is a very quiet man and he does not like to go near trouble at all. He was afraid that by making friends with other people outside of your clan, other women may think differently of him and disrespect him. This is the reason why my husband only associates himself with his relatives such as his nephews and his brothers. He seldom associates himself with other people outside of our clan. MNM: Okay, thank you for explaining about that. When we were in Laos and during the war. KY: Yes. MNM: The period during the war and shortly after that, what were the duties of our Hmong women? KY: The period before the war, I did not know that much about it, but the period during the war I remembered that I was about six or seven years old. I did not know what other women duties were, but as I remember about my mom, she cooked for the family, she cared for all of us, she washed our clothes, kept the house clean and neat, and helped my dad with farm because my dad was at the battle field most of the time so he seldom came home. He only came home once every three months, so my mom was the one who cared for all of us and fulfilled our needs and made all the decisions for us. She is the main person who made all the decisions for us. Regardless of what the needs were, such as putting food on the table, everything around the house and going to work for additional money, my mom did it all. She was the one who led us. MNM: Within the Hmong culture, the man usually makes all the decisions. Is this true? KY: Yes, but…. MNM: But during the war, most men were at the battleground leaving the women at home with their children making all the decisions. Is this a fault to the Hmong people because it was different? KY: Yes. Regarding our family… I didn’t know about others, but regarding my family, it was as I had mentioned. Before the war, I heard from my mom that as women, we did not have any rights at all. Even though you had a good idea, but the men will accept your ideas and they will not listen to you at all. This was like they took away all your rights. 20

But during the war, my dad was at the battleground, leaving my mom with all the kids. There was no man there to make any decisions for us, just my mom. She moved us around as needed to avoid the war. She put food on the table for us. She would find clothes for us to wear. Everything that needed to be done around the house was done by my mom. MNM: Did your mom go to the market to sell goods with others? Did she go with others to the market to sell something too? KY: When we were still living in Long Cheng, my mom has a shop and she made Papaya Salad, Pho, Fried noodles, and sold miscellaneous stuff like candies. Our shop was located right in our home so even though my dad was never home, my mom could run the shop at the same time that she took care all of us. She supported the whole family with money from the shop. MNM: But the shop was started before your dad went to the service? KY: The shop was started before my dad got drafted into the service, but because my dad was busy doing something else, my mom had to run the shop. MNM: Your father was going away. Did your mom and you guys run the shop by yourself? KY: Yes. Even though my dad was not there, I was helping my mom run the shop up and down because I was the oldest. MNM: That is a very important point that I saw there. During the war, the women were the businesswomen and the entrepreneurs. KY: Yes that is correct. It was very important that the women were doing everything they could to help out in spite of the dangers and hardships during the war. You could not go too far to work or farm because the Vietnamese soldiers were near by so we had to do what we could to survive. MNM: Okay. Back in Laos, what kinds of jobs were classified as women’s jobs? KY: In my opinion, as I had seen the duties of a woman when I was growing up, I did not know much, but I heard the men always tell the women that a woman’s jobs or duties includes… Cooking, cleaning, taking care of the children, and staying home most of the time because they said that a woman’s role is in the home only. These are pretty much the duties of a woman. She is also responsible for taking care of the livestock, go shopping, and other duties as mentioned. MNM: Okay, if those were the duties of women, what about men’s?

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KY: The duties of men… I don’t know, but based on what I saw from my dad… My father was gone most of the time, but when he came home he went to cut firewood for us to use and help out with the farm. Even though my dad cut the firewood, but my mom and I usually went with him to pick up and carry the wood. This is pretty much it and if he had other work outside of the house such as a meeting with General Vang Pao then he did that, but when he came home, he stay there and sometimes he helped my mom to baby-sit. Otherwise the women did most of the work around the house the men just needed to be there to make the home complete. MNM: Based on what I heard from you, it seems like the duties of a woman were mostly inside of the home. For men, their duties were to outside of the home. KY: Yes. MNM: You know, their works were primarily public work. KY: Yes. Men usually go out to the public more often, but women usually stay home and work around the house. MNM: Okay… Within your family, what role do women play in terms of making decisions or judging? KY: Within my family, I noticed that my dad was different from the other men I know, my dad was very humble, patient, and kind, so he let me go to school in an environment that most girls will never be able to go to school. My dad let my mom made her own decisions and if there is something that my mom can help out with, he will ask my mom for help too. So I know that my dad is a very humble and caring man, so within my family the men have respect for the women too. MNM: Okay. Within your relatives, how do they make decisions or judge? KY: Within my relatives, I have seen that there were many that have different opinions than we do. They thought that women have no say at all. They thought that the purpose of women was to bear children, stay home and take care of the kids, and cook for the family. Then men make all the decisions at home inside and outside the home. When I heard about this, it made me feel bad. I was wondering if we were created equally by God then why did men have more say than the women? The reason I was wondering like that is because most women are not dumb, but very smart too, so why did this happen? MNM: What about you, a Christian who believes in God, are there any changes in our (the Hmong people’s) belief about men and women? Do they tend to think that men are the decision-makers while the women are to stay home and bear children?

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KY: It is a huge difference. It has changed a lot because based on what I knew before I had become a Christian was that the men were more important than the women. Such as a woman had to prepare food and setup everything on the table then the men have to eat before the women. The women did not have any rights to eat before the men did. Another thing was that when it comes to making decisions, the men always made the decision because women has no right to make any decisions at all. But after we have become Christians, men and women have equal rights. When it comes to expressing ideas regardless of who expressed it, it can be from a woman or a man, if the idea is a good one, we will take it. We don’t consider that this is a woman’s idea or this is a man’s idea. We treated each other equally. Another thing that has changed was that the men who are Christians tend to respect their wives more than the non-Christian men and they don’t control the women as much. This gives us the women a lot more freedom. MNM: What about now, where do you think we fit into the scale in terms of the way we believe? Are we still the kind of people who believe that men are smarter then women? Are we still the kind of people who think that a woman’s job is to stay home and not make any decisions or are we closer to the point that men and women’s ideas, regardless of who expressed them, they are equally acceptable? KY: Right now, within our people, I think we are in the middle, half-and-half. This is because some of the men who think they were Christians, they still have not changed their thinking yet. Some of them knew about it, but still they could not change. Other men who were non-Christians have changed their beliefs too and let their wives input more ideas into their lives. They also let the women make some of the decisions too. It seems like we are still in the middle because some men still believe that a woman’s job is to stay home, cook, bear children, and take care of the household and their children. But others believe that two persons working to help each other are better than one because there are lots of things out there that the wife can learn and do to help the family. Most family out there are struggling with only one income, so having two incomes is better. MNM: Okay… You had mentioned that in this country there are some women who have good jobs and some had become leaders. Some of these were single and others were married. What about back in Laos, was there any women who had become leaders that you knew of? KY: Back then I was very young so I did not see any, but I have heard others mention that there was a few of them around. Some of them were teachers, some were nurses, and a few were doctors. I did not know their names personally, but I had heard that they were there. I also had heard that there were a few of them that had finished their education, but the husbands did not let them go out to work so they stay home and bear children as we had mentioned.

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MNM: Okay… What about those who had become teachers and doctors, what do you think about their husbands’ thinking? Do you think those women consider themselves leaders? KY: For those who had become teachers, nurses and doctors their husbands believed in their wives. They trusted their wives that they were good persons before they let their wives go out to work. But there were other women who think they are only women and they may not be able to perform those works so those women they did not succeed. There were some women who think like that. MNM: I’d like to ask you a few questions about family planning. I like to ask you questions about your mother and her family before we talk about yours. Within your family who determines how many children that they wanted to have? KY: Based on what I knew from my parents and other elderly people, it does not matter how many the women want. It was about how many could she have. It was up to the man. Most of them tell their wives that they have to bear as many children as they could. The women had no rights to plan anything at all, so they had to bear children until they ran out of them. MNM: Could a woman run out of children? KY: No, there is no way, that is why some of them had ten children and others never stopped so they had many, many children. But there is something that the Hmong people believe because of the way they live. They believed that the more children you have the more successful you will be. This is because back in Laos all we did was farming so the bigger the family the more farms you could farm so at the end you were more successful. This is one of the reasons why the Hmong people like to have as many children as they can. MNM: That is one of the reasons. There is also another reason why they like to have more children. The reason is that back in Laos there was lots of diseases and some children do get sick and the survival rate was very low. Is this true? KY: That was not a good thing because some children do get sick and there was no medication, so some of them got sick and did not make it. That’s not all, the reason they had more children was because they wanted more children to help out with the family farm. The bigger the family, the more help you are going to get. So my parent did not have any family planning at all. As far as I had know, my relatives and including myself did not have any family planning at all. MNM: Would the couple talk about it at all? It seems like there was no talking at all, was the husband the one who made all the decision about how many children they are going to have?

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KY: They would not talk at all. They did not know anything about family planning. As a woman, because you don’t know anything about it, so you do what your husband says so you can’t really make any decisions about it at all. MNM: As a woman, what are you going to do if you don’t want to have any more children? KY: You can’t do anything about it because your husband is the one who is in control. The husband was the one who made all the decisions. You, as a woman, did not have any right to make any decisions at all. MNM: In this country we have the birth control medication and there are lots of them. Let’s say if you don’t want to have children anymore… Do we, the Hmong people have anything like that back in our country? KY: Within the Hmong people, maybe a few of the elderly who may know that kind of medication, but I never heard of it. For my husband and I, after we had our fourth children, I went for surgery. It’s not really a surgery. It’s what they call laparoscopy. [They did a tubal ligation.] With this system, they said that three out of a thousand people who used it could still have children within a year. If you are one of those unlucky ones then you could still have children. I was one of those unlucky ones so after four months, I was pregnant with our fifth child. My husband was very worried and he did not want me to go and charge the vein. I told my husband that it is my body and I am the one who is going to bear the pain, I am the one who will be worried and not him. So I asked him not to worry and let me go through the surgery process. So I went through the process the first time and after four months, I was pregnant with our fifth child. My husband told me that he was not satisfied and he wanted us to sue the doctor who performed the procedure because I am still pregnant after the procedure. I told him that I don’t want us to sue the doctor because I feel like this baby is a miracle for us and it’s like a gift to us so I wanted this child. We agreed to have our fifth child. Two months after I had our fifth child, I went back to get the procedure done again for the second time, but this time I went to a different doctor and I asked him to charge three segments so he charged the vein with three segments. It has been over three years and I’m not pregnant so hopefully it’s working. Within my family I was the one who made the decision on this situation because my husband told me that this is really my body so I needed to make the decision to fit my needs. MNM: Do you think that other Hmong men will think the same way as your husband or is he different than other men? KY: I think that there are men out there who think the same way as my husband. They will be glad to let their wives go through the medical procedure. But there are other men 25

out there that will not think the same way as my husband because they might be afraid that their wives may not be able to have any more children, if they [the men] decided to have more children. And they may not want their wives to make all the decisions regarding how many children they are going to have. For those men this may be a problem for them, but it’s up to the couple. For me, my husband was agreeing too. I was the one who made the decision that I don’t need any more children. Five is all that I wanted so I was satisfied and decided to go through the procedure. MNM: When you were young and just starting your life, other people tended to have disrespect for you because you did not have much to show. In regards to yourself, when was the time that your parents, your relatives, your family, and your neighbors finally treated you with some respect? KY: As for me, the time my husband or other family members respect me more was the time that I gave birth to a child. It’s the first few months that I got the most attention. They cooked a few meals for me and they took care of me. After my maternity, my husband still had respect for me too, but it was less than when I was in the maternity period. This is the case for me within my family, but it’s different for my husband too. He pays attention to me and respects me most of the time. Well, when it comes to my husband, he respected me a lot in comparison to other men. This is because he helped in anyway he could. Regardless of how heavy or how light an object is, he helped me to carry it. He helped me with house chores, helped me with the kids, and helped the kids with their homework. Most men would have thought that these were the duties of a woman, but I guess my husband is an exceptional man or he is like a gift that falls upon me. This is because I looked around my sisters and other women out there, their husbands have less respect for them. They don’t help their wives to do things around the house. MNM: What else did your husband do for you to show that he respects you? KY: The things that he did to show me that he respects me were things that other men would have thought that those were the duties of women. But for my husband, even though he knew that those were my duties, he still helps me. He still helps me to take care of the house and helps me to baby-sit the kids. Even thought right now I am very busy. I volunteered to take some duties from our church so I was gone most of the weeknights and sometime the weekends too. I got off work about 5:00 p.m. and headed to the church for a meeting and sometimes the meeting lasted until 10:00 p.m. This happens three to four days per week. Sometimes I was gone on the weekend too, so my husband helped me. He cooked for the kids, helped them with their homework, made sure the kids took a shower, so he did pretty much everything. By the time I got home they were all asleep so I went to bed too and the next morning I was gone by 7:00 a.m. to work. Even though he held a full time job like me too, but he still helps out with pretty much everything around the house while I was gone. I think that as a Hmong man, if he did all that then he is one of the best. MNM: He really helps you out!

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KY: Yes, I was pretty lucky. MNM: You had mentioned that within your family, you got the most respect during the time of maternity. What about the woman who could not have any children? Do you think that they will respect her too? KY: Those women that cannot have any children, well… as I had heard and personally know of a few, their husband have very little respect for them. They were told that if they don’t have any babies, the husbands would go and find another wife. This is because if the couple does not have any children then what good is it for them? So lots of men who were in this position end up marrying another wife and see if they could have children. MNM: We have talked about a married woman, she probably got the most respect during the period of maternity. But about the young ladies who have not been married yet? What do other people think of them? KY: When we were back in Laos, I did not know any because most of the ladies around us were married. But in this country I know some of them work very hard on their education, some had found good jobs and have their own home just like everyone else, but they are still single. I have heard other single men say a few things about those single ladies. They are saying that the lady is too old and still not married yet! Maybe she is not a good person that is why nobody married her. She is too old, so no one will marry her. These were some of the words that we heard from other men out there. MNM: Oh… KY: Basically the men will lose their respect to those women who were older and still single until they are married. MNM: What about the single men who were older? There are men out there that were much older, but they are still single. What do other people think of them? KY: Most of the times there were no feelings toward the single men at all. The saying was that… Take your time to search for the right one before you get married. Regardless of how old he is, no one will say that he is too old like they did to the women. MNM: So it does not matter if the men were older and still single, right? KY: Yes. MNM: Yes, okay. Let’s talk about during the war. You had mentioned that you were very young. How old were you when you escaped from Laos into Thailand? KY: I was seven years old when we came to Thailand.

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MNM: Do you remember why did your family decided to escape from Laos and moved into Thailand? KY: When we were still living in Laos, during the war, my father was at the battlefield because he was a soldier. But as the communists came closer to our town, my father came home from the battlefield and decided that we were going to stay in Laos regardless of whether everyone had moved. He wanted to stay in Laos because he felt that if everyone had moved then those that stood behind would be promoted to become leaders. It was very tough to get my father to move out of Laos. But on the other hand my mother said we must go. The reason my mother wanted to move was because we had heard that after the Vietnamese took over; they were going to kill all the boys. I was the only girl and I have four brothers so my mother decided that we must move out. Still my father still hesitated to move, but my mother told my father that if you wanted to stay, you can stay, but I will take my children out of here. My mother called the taxi, but there was no taxi available so the next morning my mother got up very early to prepare food, supplies and all of us and we decided to move out. My father saw that we were very serious so he followed us. MNM: Your father was a soldier of General Vang Pao. Was he still there at the time that you were moving out or had he left? KY: At that time, General Vang Pao was long gone. He left before all of us. The Vietnamese soldiers had almost taken over Long Cheng, Laos. MNM: Your father believed that we were going to win the war so whoever stood behind would become leaders. Was this his belief? KY: Yes, my father believed that if everyone had left then those whom stood behind after the war would become leaders. This is because he believed that General Vang Pao would be back to help them out so whoever was still there would be crowned as leaders. This is why my father did not want to move out. MNM: Yes, Okay… After you left Laos and came to Thailand, can you tell me a little bit about which camp you and your family resided at and what were your experiences at the camp? KY: Okay…When we were in the process of moving out, my mother refused to use the helicopter because there were too many of us and my mother was afraid that the helicopter might crash. So my mother rented a taxi to take us to a city called Na Xou (Nas Xus) then we went on to a city called Pha Khet (Phav Kheb). Back then we live in Long Cheng so we rented a taxi to take us to Pha Khet. The taxi that we took broke down on the way to Pha Khet so we had to walk for about two hours before we reached Pha Khet.

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When we arrived at Pha Khet, we spent a night in that town. The next morning we heard that the helicopters would be coming back to Long Cheng to pick up some more people so we took the taxi back to Long Cheng. By the time we got there, the last helicopter had just left. There were no helicopters or cars so we went back to spent two nights in our old home. After that we went back to Pha Khet, but I didn’t remember if we were traveling by foot or car. From Pha Khet we went to Na Xou and there was where my parents paid a Hmong man to help us with the paperwork to get to Thailand. This guy knew all the rules because he used to live with the Vietnamese. At this time the Vietnamese had taken over Na Xou already. My parents and the man lied that my mother was going to take the children to school in Vientiane, I don’t remember exactly because I was very young, but that was what I heard. So my mother took all the kids and we went ahead. My mother took all of us to move ahead, but unfortunately our car broke down about half way, so my mother left us with one of the family down there. I didn’t remember if they were relatives or strangers. MNM: Was your father with your family? KY: My father was not with us because if he was with us the Vietnamese may know because they had blocked all the roads. My mother left us with that family and went back to tell my father. So my father went back to prepare the paperwork for him that he was going to Vientiane (Vias Caas) to do something and my mother was going to adopt children down there. They came to pick us up from the family where my mother had left us and we moved toward Vientiane. We spent one or two nights in Vientiane and then we secretly looked for ways to cross the river to Thailand so we did. MNM: Okay… When you were at the Mekong River, were you taking a boat or did you swim over to Thailand? What did you do? KY: The Vietnamese soldiers blocked all the roads to the river so we had to wait until 3:00 a.m. in the morning before we snuck across the road and moved toward the river. Then from there we took two boats to Thailand. The Vietnamese soldiers were firing shots too, but fortunately we got to Thailand safely. When we arrived in Thailand, the boat men told us that they would send our stuff by a second boat, but they never did. We lost all our belongings. The Thai people greeted us with open arms and gave us food to eat and a place for us to sleep. They treated us very well. But when we arrived in Nong Qhai (Noom Qhais), we did not have a house to live so we used the plastic cloth to make temporary tent for us to live. I remembered that one time it rained so hard that it flooded our tent and we couldn’t sleep at all. In fact, it rained so hard that my mother took us, the children to sleep in the one of the restrooms. It smelled very bad, but because it was raining so hard outside, we stayed in the restroom all night.

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Shortly after that, we used tarps (ntaub kaus) to make bigger and stronger tents for us to live in because there was no more room available in the apartments. Those who came earlier than us had occupied them all. There was another camp named Nan Phong (Naab Phoos) and they are coming to pick up the refugees who did not have a place to stay in Nong Qhai to the new camp. We were suppose to go over there, but there were some people who came after us who had relatives working in the camp so they took their relatives instead of us. We stayed in Nong Qhai for about a year before move to Ban Vinai (Npaab Vib Nais). But when we were living in Nong Qhai, we were having lots of problem because the Thai people down there treated us, the refugees, very, very bad. They looked at us as though we were dogs, treated us with disrespect. When they were driving while we tried to cross the road, they pretended like they did not see us crossing. Let’s say when you go out to buy food to eat, the Thai people did not want to look at you at all and they sold food at a higher price to us than the Thai people. They were not nice to us at all. MNM: Do you remember back in Nong Qhai, was there a Hmong leader who was working with the Thai people? KY: Back then, I did not know if there was anyone at all. I don’t remember if there was anyone or not. MNM: Yes. What year was it, when you escaped Laos into Thailand? KY: It was June… It seems like the beginning of June in 1975. MNM: Then it was around the time that Laos, our country fell to the communists. Okay, how long did you stay in Nong Qhai before you move to Ban Vinai? KY: Around one year. MNM: How long did you stay in Ban Vinai before you came to this country? KY: We lived in Ban Vinai for about three and a half to four years. When we got to Ban Vinai, there was food that was supplied to us by the people around there, but it wasn’t enough for us to eat so my mother and I went out to look for work. We planted vegetables in small garden so we could have enough food to eat. When my mother and I went out to work, my father stayed home and baby-sat my brothers. We took a taxi to work and it took about three hours to get to work. We usually went for a month at a time before we came home. At that time there was no way of supporting our family other than this. We had to go to work like this so that we can get money to help support our family in the camp.

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MNM: Was there any different between Nong Qhai and Ban Vinai? You had mentioned that back in Nong Qhai, the Thai people treated the refugees very bad. What about Ban Vinai, is Ban Vinai the same or different than Nong Qhai? KY: In Ban Vinai, it was about the same as Nong Qhai. Let’s say you go out to shop for food, they charged you at a higher price than they charged to the Thai people. If there was a shortage of food, they will let their people get it first before letting the Hmong people buy them. There were lots of prejudices in both camps. Sometimes you walked along the way and if they saw you, they would spit at you. I also heard that for those who had traveled outside of the camp, regardless of where they went to play or to work, the Thai people treated them very badly and for some teenage girls, they were raped by the Thai people. MNM: Yes. I was going to ask you because when you mentioned that your mother and you went to work outside of the camp, how long would you and your mother be gone? KY: We were gone for about a month. MNM: Were you afraid? Did you two go by yourself or with someone else? KY: We went with a group of people too. It was about ten of us so we felt a little more safe. We would not have gone alone. I went with my mother because when we arrived in Ban Vinai, my mother gave birth to my younger sister so I had to go with her to baby-sit so that my mother could work. MNM: Okay,…Were there any men who went with the group? KY: Yes, some men went with us too. There were other men outside our family who went with us too. It’s because there was no one there to help babysat my brothers so my father had to stay home and baby-sit my brothers. MNM: What kind of work did your mother do? What did you do? KY: We gathered corn, sometimes removed weeds, and harvested rice. MNM: Did they pay you more money? KY: At that time, the value of their money was not that high either so it wasn’t that much, but we received enough money to support our family for about three or four months with a full month of work. MNM: Okay… At that time, did the Thai soldiers allowed you to go outside of camp to work? Were they always like that or? KY: In the beginning, they allowed us, the Hmong people to go out to work too but later on they closed the camp and let no one out. If you wanted to go outside of camp, you 31

must fill out certain paperwork to get permission and have enough reasons. In other words, you must pass through their door or gate with the appropriate paperwork before they let you go out. MNM: Okay. In your opinion, why did they change like that? KY: I did not know much about it, but in my opinion… If they let us go outside of camp to work or get out more, then I think they were afraid that some may come back with drugs or they may go out and cause trouble to the Thai people. I really don’t know the real reason why they changed, but this is my own opinion. MNM: Okay… You had mentioned that they also supplied food for us, the Hmong refugees to eat. How did they decide what or how much food for each family? What was their practice to decide how much food to give out to each family? KY: Based on what I understood, it depended on how many people you had in your family. As an example…If you have eight people in your family then they gave you eight cups of rice for a week. They gave us enough for that week. It really depended on the number of people you have in your family. If you have more people, you will get more and if you have less, you will get less. MNM: Okay…Within the camp, Ban Vinai, what else did you do? Did you have enough time to go to school or do something else? KY: At that time, we did have enough time to go to school and to do other duties too. We went to get water, washed our clothes, celebrated our New Year and threw balls at the New Year Party. There were lots of fun things to do at the camp. MNM: When you think about Ban Vinai, what do you remember most about Ban Vinai? KY: I don’t remember anything at all. This is because when we got to the camp, we were very poor. We were poor in many ways. We were poor not only the outside, but also the inside too. We were not only poor from not having enough food to eat, but we were poor inside of our hearts that we had no country to live in, and lots of my friends and families that used to live together were separated into many ways. There were lots of struggles within all of us, the Hmong people so there was not much to remember at all. I thought it was only a temporary place to live for a while. MNM: Within Ban Vinai, is there anything that was good? When you think back about Ban Vinai, do you remember any good things about it? Like one good thing about the camp. KY: I think one of the good thing about the camp was that when we arrived at the camp there were houses that was ready for us and they let us live in those houses.

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That was a good thing. Other things, I don’t see any other good things about it. MNM: When you were living in Ban Vinai, did you see any differences about men and women? How were they treated? KY: Women and men were the same in front of the eyes of the Thai people who had no respect for us, the refugees. But in terms of our people, it was exactly like when we lived in Laos. The men were the decision-makers and the head of the household and the women’s job was to stay home and take care of the children. But at that time, the Thai people allowed the women to attend school the same as the men so everybody got to go to school the same way. Yes, whoever has the abilities to learn, they would allow that individual to go to school regardless of whether they were a boy or girl. MNM: Did you have to pay to attend school? KY: As I remembered, we did not pay to attend school. MNM: Did they require every child to attend school? KY: They were not required. It was up to the individual. If they wanted their children to attend school, and then they would, otherwise they won’t. MNM: Did they study only the Thai Language or English too? KY: We studied only the Thai Language, but about three months before we came to this country they taught us some English too. This was to prepare us for the new country. MNM: Yes. That is good. What year did your family decided to come to this country? KY: I came to this country in 1980. It was April of 1980. MNM: What made your parents decide to come to America? This is because as you had mentioned that your father didn’t even want to come to Thailand. Is it correct? KY: Yes, my father did not want to leave Laos at all, but when we were going to come to this country, I saw that my father is a humble man, and he knew that education is very important because he is a very educated man. He had heard from others that America is the Land of Opportunity so he thought that if he took us to this country then we would have the chance to get more education than if we stayed in Thailand so both of my parents decided to bring us to this country. It was not only my father or my mother’s decision to come to this country, but both of them had made the decision to come to America. 33

MNM: What did they see in this country that would benefit you, the children that drove them to made the decision to come to this country? KY: They thought that by coming to this county maybe their children would have more chances to learn than if they stayed in Thailand. He also thought that maybe there would be houses to live in, more jobs to do, and maybe there would be more freedom so we can live freely without any worry. MNM: How old were you when your family came to this country? KY: I was eleven years old when we came to this country. MNM: After you came to this country, what is the one thing that was the easiest and quickest for you to learn? KY: After we came to this country, one of the things that were easy was going to school. It was going to school and helping my parents to baby-sit were some of the things that were easy. This is because after I came back from school, my parents had to go to school at night so I had to help them by baby-sitting. But some of the hardest things for us were that… There was depression in all of us, there was loneliness in us because all our friends and relatives were not here with us and we were living alone with the Americans in the apartment. They didn’t like us; they said bad words and spit at us. They treated us very bad. There was lots of loneliness among the older folks and they don’t want to stay in this country. In fact, my parents were talking that they wanted to go back because they don’t speak any English, don’t have any friends, don’t know where to go, and they know how to read or write so it was very hard for my parents and the older folks. MNM: When you got to this country, what state did your family reside? KY: We were first came to St. Paul, Minnesota then about a month later we moved into Minneapolis. MNM: Didn’t you have any friends or relatives around? Why was there lots of loneliness among your parents? KY: Yes, we did. But we were not living close to each other and we did not know how to drive so it was very hard for us to see each other. It was very hard to go to the store because there was no one there to take you to the store to buy food to eat. This is why they were very lonely. MNM: Okay…What is the immediate skill needed for your adjustment process? Maybe you were too young to remember, but if you think back to the time that you first got to this country. What were the crucial skills that your family had or gained that had helped your family?

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KY: Some of the things that were much easier with us were that we knew how to cook and keep the house clean. Even though we knew how to cook and keep our house clean, we were struggling still because we did not know how to use the American equipment such as the appliances, etc… Learning how to use the equipment to cook for us was a huge challenge, but as time went by we finally learned and got used to it. MNM: As we had talked about your parents. You had mentioned that back in Thailand and in Laos, your father was a soldier and your mother stood home with you and your brothers and she was also a businesswoman during the war too. Do you think that those skills that they had with them helped you and your family in this country? KY: When we first arrived in this country, those skills that they had did not help because in this country you must know how to read and write in English in order for you to be in business. But when it came to putting food on the table for the family, we could handle them within our family. One of the best things that we experienced was that there was water right in your house and the bathroom right in your house. But the skills that we mentioned did not helped us at that time. MNM: When you think about the life that we live in this country. Do you think the life in this country is best for women or is best for men? KY: I think the life in this country is good for both. Its good for both women and men because regardless of if you are a woman or a man you two have equal rights and you two have the same abilities. If you work hard on your education there will be jobs for you to do and houses for you to live. So this is really the land of opportunity for both women and men. MNM: If someone asks you about where is your home or where is your home country? What is your response? KY: For me…Because I have lived in this country longer than I lived in Laos, I think this country is my home. MNM: What do you think of Laos? In your opinion, what is your relationship toward Laos? KY: I think that Lao is a very special country. But for me it seems like Laos is only a country that I had seen, lived, and knew for a very short period of time. It is not a stable country so it is not my home country. I am so happy that we were born in the right place and the right time because we got to come and live in this great country. Our parents had brought us to this great county so that we can get our education, gain more knowledge, have the houses like other people to live, and get the good jobs. For those who were still carrying our old tradition and don’t know much about other nationalities and their cultures, now they have the opportunities to learn other nationalities and their cultures. It is a good thing to know other people and their cultures such as other Americans and their

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religions. This is a great country that gave us good opportunities because regardless of if you were a woman or men, you have the same rights as other people in this country. MNM: You had answered me that this country is your home country, but other Hmong people especially the older folks would think that Laos is their home country. What do you think about that? KY: I think that is okay for them to think like that because they had to live in Laos a major part of their lives so that is why they feel like Laos is their home country. There was freedom back in Laos too, but when it comes to opportunity such as how to advance yourself in terms of business so that you could get wealthy was not there. Because most of the older folks back then were farmers so they got to do what they wanted so it was a good thing for them because they had the freedom to do what they wanted. But for the younger generation, we say that this is our home country and that is okay because we have lived here the majority of our lives. MNM: Okay…Are you a US citizen? KY: Right now, I am not because I haven’t made the decision yet. But I am a permanent resident. MNM: Do you think that you will become a U.S. citizen? KY: I had thought about it and maybe I will make my decision to become a U.S. citizen very soon. MNM: Okay. What is your opinion regarding some of our Hmong people whom had decided to run for office with the Americans? KY: For me, I think that it is a good thing for the Hmong people because we had some of our young men and women who are competing for office with others. This is a good thing because this country gives us the opportunity to grow ourselves another step, so competing to become a leader like that is definitely part of growing for us. But I think that regardless of how high you climb on your success ladder, you need to remember that you are still Hmong. Even though you are very success at what you do, don’t forget to do the job that will help our people and we must love each other, help each other, and be very humble regardless of how successful you are. You must not feel like you are much more important because you held a higher position and don’t overlook your people. If that is how they feel, then don’t take the position because it is not going to benefit you and your people. MNM: Do you think that this is a good thing for the Hmong people to do by running for office with the Americans?

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KY: I think this is a very good thing for the Hmong people because we had some of our young men and women who have advanced their education and have the abilities to compete for offices with the Americans. This is a very good opportunity for us. MNM: During the war that we fought in Laos were you aware of it? KY: During that time, I was very aware of what was going on because I was about seven years old and I remembered my mother moved us from place to place. I remembered that I had helped my mother to carry food and walked with her from place to place. I remembered very clear that we were very worried and afraid. Every time there were shot fired by the Vietnamese soldiers, we were terrified. I do remember it very well. MNM: Was there a leader who you remember and respected the most at that time? KY: At that time I was still young so I did hear that there were a few of them, but one that I knew and have the highest respect for is General Vang Pao. General Vang Pao is the only one whom I knew very well and respect more than the others. This is because I only heard of other people talked about the other leaders, but I did not know them. MNM: What about regarding the leadership of women within the Hmong people in this country, has it been changed? You had mentioned that back in Thailand and in Laos men held all the leadership positions. For the Hmong people, has this been changed after we got to this country? KY: I think that back in our country there was no opportunity for us, the women, to become leaders, but in this country we have the same rights and the opportunity to become whatever you wanted to be. If you worked hard on your education, then you have the rights to become a leader for the public or a leader within your community. I saw this thought of the Hmong people has changed a lot because we had other Hmong women whom had became leaders. This is a very good thing for the Hmong people. MNM: What about in the State of Minnesota, regarding the Hmong women leadership, do you knew of anyone? KY: There were many that I know of. There are two or three that in my opinion are the leaders within our Hmong women. Even though they were housewives, but they also held higher positions in terms of their jobs. I knew these women because I went to church with them, they are good people and they taught us how to do the right thing and have the good attitude. That is not all, there is one that I knew the most and her name is MayKao Hang. This is because I saw that she leads by example. She led all of us, the Hmong women regardless of if you were single or married to volunteer. She is a leader that sets up an example for us to learn. Gao Lee Vang (Nkauj Lig Vaj) is also one of those leaders. She started WAHL (Women Association for Hmong and Laos). She is a leader who also leads by setting good example. I also learned good things from her. 37

MNM: Among those women who became leaders, they had helped and pooled their ideas to help the Hmong people. In your opinion, what will the Hmong men think about those ladies…? Are they the leaders for Hmong people or are they just being leaders for the women? KY: Based on what I understand the men would not recognize them as leaders to the Hmong people. Maybe they thought that those ladies are the leaders for only the women and maybe some other men. I also heard other men mentioned that those ladies were not leaders, they were just workers like everyone else. They did not consider those ladies as leaders. MNM: So they were leaders, but only to the women? What are we going to do to change the way our Hmong people think? How are we going to make the men think that regardless of if you were a woman or a men and if you have the abilities to become a leader, you should be consider a leader among all of our people? KY: I think we need to educate the Hmong men because they don’t understand that as a women even though we held a full time job out there, but we are the one who take care of the children, take care of our home, cook, and many other duties. We not only working outside of our home, but most of the chores in the house are being done by us. Even though we are the leaders for most positions out there, let’s say a director for a non-profit organization, we are also then leaders in our family and for our children. I think we cannot expect them to change right away, but little by little. We need to slowly educate our men so that they know more about us. We are not just women who stay home and take care of the children, but also can do lots of thing outside of our home too so they can treat us with more respect. They need to understand that what we are doing here is for the benefit of our families. If we don’t do this then there will be no one to help our men. They also need to understand that the more women who become leaders, the more we can help enhance our lives. They need to see that this is a good thing for all of us. MNM: What are the things that women can do in this country that they could not do back in Thailand and Laos? KY: In this country I saw that more women have the abilities to become leaders because of the educational system and the equal rights than we had in that country. We have the same rights as our men and other nationalities too. That is not all, if one of our ladies wanted to become a leader or get a better job, then all she needs to do is to work hard on her education and lead others by setting good examples for others to follow. Others will see that she works hard and succeeds on what she did so they will follow her. This is a good thing for all of us. MNM: What do you see in terms of the capabilities that our Hmong ladies had done to benefit the Hmong people directly?

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KY: Yes, there are lots of things that the Hmong women did to not only benefit the Hmong people, but other nationalities as well. Some of them became teachers to teach others. They are not only teachers at the school, but also teachers at their home too because by the time they got home from their work, they start to teach and help their children. There are others Hmong women who become social workers, lawyers, doctors, nurses, businesswoman, bankers, and I also heard a few of them have become pastors. I could go on and on and on… There are many of them who are working in the offices. MNM: I like to ask you a few questions about the older Hmong ladies. In this country, we always mentioned about how important it is to get your education. What about our older ladies who could not attend or get the education that they need. How are they going to help us and what benefit are they to us? I can’t say it in Hmong, but in English… What about those women who could not read or write, how can they contribute to us? KY: They are very important to us. In my own situation, if I don’t have my sister-in-law to help us out then I don’t know what we would have done. She helps us baby-sit when both of us are working. Even though she could not read or write, she stayed home and volunteered to help us baby-sit our children, and helps take care of the children when we were working to feed our family. They play a very important role in our life. I don’t want us, the younger generation to turn away from our parents because without them we would not have been in this country. It was them who brought us to this country so I think we need to thank them and they deserve our respect even though they don’t read or write. We need to respect our parents and our older folks by living our lives the best we can so that our parents and older folks can be proud for all of us. Even though they don’t read or write, we must not ignore them. We need to be humble and find other solutions to help us stay together. This is because without our parents or older folks to help us, it will be tougher for us to live than if we have them there to help us. MNM: Do you think of anything else to add that I haven’t asked you about? KY: Okay… I just want us, the Hmong women and the Hmong young ladies out there to remember to respect our parents because if you are not respecting your parents your children will not respect you too. We need to set good example and be a role model for our children and other people so that they know you are a good person. We need to do the right thing and set good examples so other people can respect us as real leaders. Even though you are a leader and having a good job out there, if you are not being a good role model for your family and others then people will not respect you as a leader. They will think that all you do is think how important you are and how high you think you are. You have to remember that you are a woman and you need to teach your children so that they become good people. You have to be a good person, love others and don’t be lazy. You have to live your life to the fullest. For the women who are married, stick with your husband to the end and don’t leave him when things get tough. Even though you may be

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smarter, have higher education, and have a better paying job, don’t forget your respect to your husband because he is the head of the household. If you don’t respect your husband, other people will not respect you as well because the reason people respect you is because of your husband. We also need to respect our parents too because without them we would not be here. You must treat your husband and your parents with high respect. You have to focus on your life and be patient with each other. Once a female friend of mine told me that in this world you will not die from being patient with each other. And if you are patient, other people will say good things about you. They will say that the reason you die is because you are too patient. People will respect you for what you did. But let’s say if you are not dead from being patient then other people will say, look at this ladies, she gets along well with her family, her friends and neighbors and other people out there. She is a good person who sets a good example for her family and other peoples. I just want to leave you all with this… We, the Hmong women and our young daughters whom are growing up, need to be patient with each other. This is a must. We need to love our friends and neighbors, love our family, and focus on your life with your family so that you can be more prosperous. This is all I have to say and thank you. MNM: Thank you.

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Kim Yang
Interviewer (I) : I guess, I mean your name? Kim Yang (K) : Ws..kuv lub npe, ua ntej kuv yuav txiv nws hu ua vav, ces xeem yog xeem vaj. I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: Ws… Vav vaj, yeah, tab sis tam sim no kuv pauv rau hu ua Kim no. Ok, ua cas koj ho pauv nab. Rau qhov thaum kuv yuav txiv ces.. kuv muab kuv lub npe pauv hu ua Kim no,ces tam sim no kuv…lub xeem yog hmoob Yaj, Kim Yaj. Ws..ok, tab sis lub …npe hluas nkauj ces yog… Vav, yeah, yog hmoob Vaj, yeah. Uas, tam sim no koj muaj pes tsawg xyoo lawm? Tam sim no kuv muaj 31 xyoos lawm. Ok, koj muaj pes tsawg tus me nyuam? Kuv muaj 5 tug me nyuam, 1 tug nxhais, tus ntxhais yog tus hlob, hos 4 tug tub. Lawv muaj pes tswg xyoo? Ib tug muaj 15, ib tug 14, ib tug muaj 10, ces ib tug muaj 5, thiab ib tug muaj 3 xyoos. Hm…hm..uh…ok, koj ho kawm ntawv qib siab txog theem twg lawm? Kuv kawm ntawv tiav qib 12, thiab kuv tau mus kawm computer program 6 lub hlis, ces kuv tawm los ua hauj lwm lawm. Hm.. es tam sim no koj ua txoj hauj lwm ab tsi?

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K:

Kuv txoj hauj lwm tam sim no kuv ua ces yog ntaus computer tej ntawd thiab...create form tej ntawd, thiab tawm mus muab training rau cov staffs sab nraum. Lub no yog koj, koj muaj koj ib lub uas..organisation los yog koj ua rau lwm tus xwb? Kuv ua hauj lwm rau lwm tus xwb,... kuv cov hauj lwm nws muaj raws li nram no es yog kuv kho, kuv kho ntaub ntawv rau peb tau siv kom yooj yim dua qhov qub thiab.. uas.. qhov 2 yog kuv cob qhia cov neeg ua hauj lwm sab hauv, sab nraud tib si, cov uas peb ntiav los ua dej num tshiab kom lawv paub ua lawv txoj hauj lwm tsi tas li ntawd xwb kuv kuj txhim kho tej teeb meem uas tshwm sim lub sij hawm uas.. lawv noog txog kev siv ntaub ntawv tej ntawd nav. Uh..hm… Ces kuv pab lawv txog tej ntawd thiab. Es koj twb ua txoj hauj lwm no ntev npaum cas lawm nav? Kuv twb ua tau..10 xyoo ntau no. Oh…es qhov, qhov, txoj hauj lwm nov puas yog txoj...koj twb mus kawm ntawv qhov computer program nov, es koj mam los ua puas yog? Uh... hm.. Ok, zoo mav,... ntawm koj txoj hauj lwm ntawd, koj ho tau nyiaj npaum li cas? Tam sim no kuv tau li 33 phav toj ib xyoos. Ok, uas koj puas ua lwm txoj hauj lwm thiab? Kuv tsi ua, kuv ua tib txog ntawd xwb. Ok, uh.. tam sim no koj ho nrog leej twg nyob? Tam sim no kuv nrog kuv tus txiv thiab kuv cov me nyuam nyob. Neb puas nrog niam pog lawv nyob nab? Wb tsi muaj niam pog thiab txiv yawg , wb niam pog thiab txiv yawg yeej xiam ntev lawm, ces uas wb muaj ib tug muam nws muaj 60 tawm xyoo nws tsi mauj cuab muaj yig nws tsi tau yuav txiv li ces nws nrog wb nyob, thiab nws pab wb zov wb cov me nyuam.

I: K:

I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K:

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I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I:

Ws.. zoo... Ok, ces...uas puag ta koj twb hais tias koj yuav txiv tau pes tsawg xyoo lawm? Kuv twb yuav txiv tau 15 xyoos lawm. Thaum koj yuav txiv ntawd koj muaj pes tsawg xyoo? Thaum kuv yuav txiv ntawd kuv muaj 16 xyoo. Ok, hos koj tus txiv nev nws ho muaj pes tsawg xyoo? Kuv tus txiv nws muaj 25 xyoos rau qhov nws hlob kuv 9xyoos. Ok, es puas muaj lwm tus poj niam los yog koj ib leeg xwb? Nws yuav kuv ib leeg xwb os , wb tsi muaj niam hlob niam yau tej ntawd. Uh, hm.. Ok, uas koj twb tuaj teb chaws no tau pes tsawg xyoo lawm? Peb tuaj teb chaws no tau 19 xyoos thiab 6 lub hlis. Hm…19 xyoos thiab 6 lub hlis.

K: I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K:

Peb tuaj xyoo 1980 thaum lub 4 hlis ntuj. Oh, ok thaum nej tuaj ntawd es nej nyob lub camp twg nav? Thaum peb tuaj teb chaws no yog peb tuaj lub npaab Vib Nais tuaj nav. Ok,hm..uh..koj twb muaj noob nyoog heev lawm ces koj tsi yog yug teb chaws nov los yog koj yug qhov twg? Kuv yug nyob rau Looj Ceeb uas nyob Nplog teb. Hm..hm.. Nyob lub Xeev Khuam. Uh..ok, uh.. koj yog hmoob dad tsi? Kuv yog hmoob dawb, thiab kuv ho los yuav tau tus txiv tsev neeg hmoob dawb thiab.

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I: K:

Oh…ok, koj hais puas yog puas muaj teeb meem yog koj mus yuav ib tug uas tsi yog hmoob dawb? Kuv xav tias tsi muaj dab tsi nyob ntawm yus tus kheej xav xwb tab sis rau ntawm kuv, kuv xav tias hmoob dawb hmoob ntsuab hmoob dab tsi los, it’s after yus 2 niam txiv hais tias yus sib hlub lawm ces nws yeej tsi muaj dab tsi. Uh hm..uh hm.. uh…koj coj kev cai tshiab los kev cai qub? Oh…ua ntej kuv yuav txiv ces kuv tsev neeg peb yeej tseem coj kev cai qub tab sis thaum kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv lawm ces kuv tus txiv lawv tsev neeg yeej coj kev kev cai tshiab puag thaum xyoo 1961rau qhov tias lub sij hawm ntawd muaj ploj muaj tuag heev, ces uas lawv cov me nyuam xiam coob tus lawm ces nws niam hiab nws txiv yeej los nteeg Vaj Tswv puag thaum ntawd ces thaum kuv los yuav nws ces kuv yeej nrog nws mus Tshawj, ces wb yeej coj kev cai tshiab los txog tav nov es wb yeej tseem ntseeg Vaj Tswv. Kiag ntawm peb cov poj niam hmoob ces, yog yus yuav tus txiv es nws, nws ua ab tsi ces yus yeej tau ua xwb lov? I mean yog, yog koj, yog koj ho yog ib tug me nyuam ntxhais es ua kev cai tshiab ntseeg Vaj Tswv es koj yuav tus txiv nws tsi ua cov kev cai ntawd nav. Uas koj lub neej ho yuav zoo li cas? Kuv xav tias ntawd, nyob rau ntawm yus tus kheej thiab rau qhov ntawm kuv case nws kuj yog ib qho txawv thiab kuv kuj tsi paub tias cov uas lawv mus yuav txiv es yog tias lawv tus txiv nws coj kev cai dab tsi los yuav tsum tau coj kev cai dab tsi los yog cas, tab sis kuv no mas, thaum kuv nrog kuv niam lawv nyob kuv niam lawv tsi mus tshawj tab sis, peb cov me nyuam peb yeej nrog nrog meskas mus tshawj ces peb kuj swm thiab kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv nws, even though nws twb lawb dab ntev ntev lawm los kuj tsi tshua mus tshawj thiab nav. Hm..hm.. Ces kuv los yuav nws ces, kuv mam li coj nws mus tshawj nav ces. Ces koj ho coj nws mus lawm thiab puas yog, hi..hi…?

I: K:

I:

K:

I: K: I:

K:

Uh..hm…nws tsi, nws tsi tshua mus ces kuv mam coj nws mus, ces thaum wb nyuam qhuav pib mas wb yeej use to fight every day. Every Sunday wb yuav mus tshawj mas wb yeej fight li, tab sis mas after a while ces nws pom hais tias kuv qhov reason yog qhov zoo thiab no ces nws cia li ua ib siab mus lawm es, even though nws yog neeg paub Vaj Tswv los nws yeej tsi mus tab sis. Ua cas nws ho tsi mus es nws tsev neeg twb mus ne?

I:

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Rau qhov ib yam li lawv paub Vaj Tswv ib yam tab sis lawv tuaj txog teb chaws no ces nws niam nws txiv yeej tuag ntxov ntxov lawm ces, nws tus tij laug ho tsi mus tshawj thiab ces paub Vaj Tswv tab sis cia li ua rau nws tsi mus lawm nav. Uh..hm.. Ces thaum kuv yuav tau nws ces kuv mam li coj nws ces, kuv mam li yuam yuam nws ces, tam sim no wb rov qab mus tshawj lawm. Hm, koj twb yog ib tug neeg tsi mus tshawj sais ws..ws..yav tas koj tsi pais cas tam sim no koj ho, koj ho ua cas koj ho mob siab mus lawm thiab no? Rau qhov ib yam li kuv believe hais tias yus ua ib tug neeg tuaj rau lub teb chaws tshiab no lawm, tam sim no cov laus los lawv kuj tas lawv zuj zus lawm thiab tshuav peb cov hluas lawm xwb, yog hais tias yus tsi mus coj kev cai tshiab es yus ho coj kev cai qub no ces txog lub sij hawm uas li cov laus hais 100, puv 120 xyoo nav, ces yus tsi paub yuav ua li cas lawm thiab nav. Ces yus niam yus txiv los kuj laus zuj zus lawm ces yus yuav tau tsum, xyaum mus tshawj, mus coj kev cai tshiab thiab es kom txog lub sij hawm uas luag hais puv 120 xyoo tej ntawd los yus thiaj li muaj kev pab tej ntawd yus thiaj li ho paub ua lwm yam thiab, ces kuv believe hais tias yus yuav tsum tau pauv, thiab yus tuaj txog lub teb chaws no lawm nws txawv lawm yus yuav tau tsum pauv raws lub teb chaws no thiab. Uh..hm..hm…rau qhov cov uas...koj cov mas lawv hais tias yog yus, txhawj, yog yus ua kev cai tshiab lawm no yus tsi yog hmoob lawm no ne, koj ho yuav teb li cas rau cov neeg hais li ntawd? Kuv xav mas uh…yog hmoob no mas,tsi tim hais tias koj yuav tau coj kev cai dab tsi es koj thiaj li yuav tsi yog hmoob, tsuav yog koj coj kev cai dab tsi los yus yeej yog hmoob, nyob ntawm yus txoj kev ntseeg xwb, yog koj tseem ntseeg Vaj Tswv, koj tseem coj kev cai Npus Das{Buddha} los yog (Muslim),los yog coj kev cai hmoob, cai qub ntawd los yog hais tias koj tsi muaj txoj kev ntseeg ruaj thiab khov rau yam ntawd ces …nws yeej ua rau koj kev ntseeg ntawd poob thiab ua rau koj feel li koj tsi tseem hmoob nav tab sis yog tias ruav koj ntseeg yav ntawd los ruav koj tseem ua li, koj coj li koj yeej yog ib tug hmoob nav, es tsi txhob muab yus txoj kev pauv hais tias oh!…tsuav kuv ntseeg yam nov ces kuv tsi yog hmoob lawm nav, no ces yus qhov ntseeg ntawd nws tsi pauv dab tsi rau ntawm yus tus kheej yus yeej tseem yog hmoob li qhov qub? Es qhov teeb meem ntawd, qhov cov hmoob ib co hmoob lawv tseem ua kev cai qub ho ib co lawv pauv los ua kev cai tshiab, koj hais 2 qho nov puas ua teeb meem rau peb cov hmoob? Tam sim no kuv yeej pom hais tias qhov ntawd nws yeej muaj teeb meem thiab rau qhov tias kuv yeej pom kiag ntawm kuv qhov muag tias nyob li tej tug, tej tug

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niam tais nav,xav xav mus ntseeg kev cai tshiab ces nws mus ntseeg kev cai tshiab tab sis tshuav cov me nyuam tsi tau ntseeg nav,ces nws cov me nyuam los lawv kuj xav hais tias tsam ib ntsis lwm hnub es nws puv 120 xyoo es lawv yuav ua li cas ces lawv nyuaj siab,ces thaum uas, tej tug niam tais nws li no nws, nws txhawj txog hais tias tsam ib ntsis nws cov me nyuam take care tsi tau nws rau qhov nws txhawj hais tias ram nws puv 120 xyooj ces cov me nyuam no lawv tsi paub kev cai qub lawm ces tsi muaj leej twg yuav los ua tej kev cai qub no ces nws thiaj li mus ntseeg Vaj Tswv lawm. Ces nws mus ntseeg Vaj Tswv thaum lub sij hawm nws, kuv pom 1-2 tug nwg tag sim neej los niam no txawm yog tias nws cov me nyuam tsi ua kev cai rau nws los pawg ntseeg ntawd yeej ua kev cai rau nws, ces kuv yeej pom tau hais tias nws yog ib qho zoo thiab, rau qhov tias peb nyob lub teb chaws no lawm peb yuav tau tsum xyuas hais tias yam twg yog yam zoo pauv peb yuav tsum tau pauv raws li ntawd thiab. I: K: I: K: Uas tam sim no kuv xav noog koj txog, thaum koj tseem ua hluas nkauj thiab koj tseem yau nav. Hm…hm… Thaum ntawd koj puas, koj puas mus kawm ntawv thiab? Thaum kuv muaj 6 xyoo kuv mus kawm ntawv tau 3 lub hlis xwb rau qhov tias kuv yog tus ntxhais hlob ces tsi muaj leej twg pab kuv niam kuv txiv zov me nyuam los yog pab lawv ua dej num hauv vaj hauv tsev ; los yog ua zaub ua mov tej ntawd, ces kuv txiv raug, lub sij hawm ntawd kuv txiv raug mus ua tub, raug hu mus ua tub rog lawm nav. Ces tom qab ntawd ,tsi muaj leej twg pab kuv niam ces kuv niam thiaj li kom kuv tawm los nyog hauv tsev, los pab kuv niam zov me nyuam tej ntawd thiab los pab ua zaub ua mov rau cov yau noj, es kuv niam thiaj li mus khwv tau, los yog mus ua liaj ua teb tau pab rau peb tsev neeg. Uh hm.. Ces kuj tsi tau kawm ntawv li, kuv mus kawm tau 2 lub, 3 lub hlis xwb ces thaum peb tuaj txog thaib teb ces kuv kuj kawm tau 6 lub hli thiab tab sis ua li kuv hais tsi muaj leej twg pab kuv niam kuv txiv nkawv thiab ces kuv kuj tawm los pab nkawv zov me nyuam thiab, ces kuv thiaj li tsi tau kawm ntawv ntxiv lawm. Hm … thaum nej tseem nyob teb chaws nplog , koj kawm, thaum koj 6 xyoo ntawd, kawm lub tsev kawm ntawv ab tsi? Lub tsev kawm ntawv kuv kawm ntawd ces yog lub nyob kiag rau hauv uas Looj Ceeb, es nyob rau tom uas taj laj kub nyiab nav. Es es….hmm… Lawv pheej hu ua taj laj kub hniab xwb hmm..hmm..

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Es cov hmoob qhia los cov nplog qhia xwb maj? Uas.. ib nrab hmoob ib nrab nplog li oj… Es koj, koj cov nais khu yog hmoob los yog nplog? kuv tus nais khu yog hmoob. Oh..tab sis nej kawm lus hmoob, ntawv hmoob thiab los ntawv nplog tib si? Peb kawm, actually peb tsi kawm ntawv hmoob oj…peb kawm ntawv nplog xwb oj… Oh…okay. Lub sij hawm ntawd peb yeej kawm ntawv nplog. Es…qhov school no nej puas tau them nyiaj mus maj? Peb them thiab mav, 1 hlis no ces them me ntsis nyiaj hli tej ntawd rau tus nais khu thiab. Oh…ok, zoo li kuv twb hnov lawv hais tias lawv tsi tshua pub cov me nyuam ntxhais mus kawm ntawv no ua cas koj ho mus kawm ntawv maj? Tos kuv tau mus kawm los rau qhov hais tias kuv txiv los nws kuj, peb kuj tsi yog me nyuam nom me nyuam tswv tab sis kuv txiv kuj yog ib tug tub rog zoo rau ntawn Nais Phoo thiab ces lawv kuj pom tau hais tias kuv txiv yog ib tug txawj ntse tshaj nyob rau hauv, hais rau hauv peb tsev neeg hais rau peb cov kwv tij ces kuv txiv yog tus txawj ntse tshaj. Ces lawv kuj tso kuv pais thiab rau qhov lub sij hawm ntawd kuv txiv mas kuv txiv nws believe hais tias niam no tsuav yog tub yog ntxhais los yuav tsum tso kawm es tsuav yog nws txawj es mus yuav txiv nws mus rau sab tom lawm los yuav tsum tau tso nws kawm es nws thiaj li paub, thiab nws thiaj li los ua tau nws lub neej zoo no ces kuvtxiv ntseeg li ntawd kuv txiv thiaj tso kuv mus kawm. Uh… uh...tab sis, were you the oldest? Yeah, kuv yog tus hlob. Ok ok, uh thaum koj me ntawd, thaum koj tseem me nyuam yau ntawd koj cov hauj lwm dej nwm tej hauj lwm koj tau ua ntawd yog dab tsi nav? Oh...kuv...tej hauj lwm uas kuv tau ua ces yog ; kuv zov cov yau thaum kuv niam thiab kuv txiv tau tes mus ua liaj ua teb tej ntawd, los yog mus khwv hauv uh…

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kuv mus ev dej los rau kuv tsev neeg tau siv, thiab kuv mus txiav taws even though kuv txiav tsi tau taws ntau ntau los kuv pab kuv niam khaws taws tej ntawd, kuv niam txiav ces kuv khaws taws tej ntawd kuv mus pab kuv niam ua zaub ua mov rau tsev neeg tau noj, thiab tsi tas li ntawd xwb kuv xyaum ua paj ntaub puag thaum kuv me me, kuv yeej xyaum ua paj ntaub tej ntawdes kom coj mus muag tej ntawd thiaj tau nyiaj los yug peb tsev neeg, thiab tsuav zaub npuas lauj, pub qaib pub npua tej ntawd los yog nrog kuv niam mus ua zog rau uh.., mus ua zog, mus khwv sab nraud nav kom peb tau nyiaj tej ntawd coj los yug peb tsev neeg. I: K: Uas nej tsev neeg puas, puas coob thiab maj? Peb tsev nee muaj 8 leej, kuv niam hiab kuv txiv nkawv muaj peb 6 leej, ces 2 tug tub, 4 tug tub hos 2 tug ntxhais, ces kuv yog tus ntxhais hlob, ho muaj ib tug yog tus ntxhais ntxawm. Ces 4 tug tub nyob hauv nruab nrab, ces peb muaj 8 leej, peb yeej coob kawg li. Zoo heev, uas koj puas, did you prefer any community service work? Kuv kuj tau pab cov neeg zej zog los yog cov neeg txheeb ze thiab nyob li kuv tau pab lawv zov l awv tej me nyuam kom lawv tau tes mus ua liaj ua teb tej ntawd, los yog khwv noj khwv haus, kuv kuj pab ev dej rau lawv, ces tej lub sij hawm kuv ev dej rau lawv ces lawv kuj muab kis puav nyiaj pab rau kuv coj mus kawm ntaub kawm ntawv tej ntawd es tau siv yuav ntaub yuav ntawv tej ntawd thiab. Thaum kuv tseem yau mas, thaum peb nyob Thaib teb mas kuv kuj tau mus… lawv nyuj mus noj zaub tej ntawd tom tej hav zaub thiab tsi tas li ntawd xwb kuv kuj mus txiav xyoob, muaj ib xyoos peb cov me nyuam lub xiv kawm ntawv, peb kuj tau mus txiav xyoob coj los ua ib lub tsev kawm ntawv rau peb tau kawm. Ws...Okay, Okay, thaum koj tseem yog me nyuam ntxhais yau ntawd, tej yam hauj lwm es koj tau ua thiab koj tau xyaum thiab koj niam koj txiv lawv qhia koj, cov ntawd es kom koj paub ua nav, cov ntawd yog dab tsi? Ws, kuv niam thiab kuv txiv lawv kuj tau qhia kuv ntau yam. Lawv qhia kuv kom kuv xyaum ua paj ntaub, tsis tas li ntawd xwb, lawv qhia kuv ua zaub ua mov rau tsev neeg noj thiab kom lwm hnub yus mus ua yus lub neej los yus thiaj paub khwv rau yus tsev neeg noj thiab paub ua zaub ua mov tej ntawd. Lawv kuj qhia kuv txiav taws lauj… qhia kuv de zaub, lawv qhia kuv tsuav zaub.. pub npua pub qaib tej ntawd, lawv qhia kuv u tej yau, muab tej yau da dej tej ntawd. Lawv qhia kuv kom kuv txawj hnav khaub ncaws du dais, es yus thiaj li uh…yog yus thiaj li hnav tau khaub ncaws zoo, yus thiaj li uas… zoo li yog ib tug neeg zoo tej ntawd, lawv qhia kom kuv rau siab khwv, los yog rau siab kawm ntaub kawm ntawv tej ntawd, es yus lub neej thiab li zoo lawm yam tom ntej. Tsi tas li ntawd xwb lawv kuj qhia kuv kom kuv paub fwm los yog kom kuv paub respect cov laus tej ntawd, kom kuv paub coj cai thiab ua ib tug ntxhais tsim txiaj tsi txhob tso dag tso luag tej ntawd. Lawv kuj qhia kom kuv txawj coj tus cwj pwm rau cov yau

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thiab los yog ua ib tug real model rau tej yau thiab rau tej pej xeem sawv daws, tsi tas li ntawv xwb lawv kuj…uh...txhawb, lawv txhawb kuv hais tias kom kuv…hlob los kom kuv tsi txhob ua ib tug neeg qia dub tej ntawd thiab kuv yuav tsum tau hlub... txhua leej txhua tus, hlub tsev neeg thiab hlub kwv tij zej zog los yog pej xeem sawv daws. I: Hm...es tej yam ntawd koj niam koj txiv qhia koj no koj hais, like koj tus, koj cov nus nav, lawv puas qhia tej yam txawd los tej yam ntau dhau, ntau tshaj ntawd rau qhov lawv yog me nyuam tub lawm? Kuv niam kuv txiv yeej tau qhuab qhia kuv tej nus ib yam nkaus kuv tab sis mas muaj yam puav lawv yeej qhia ntau zog rau qhov tias kuv cov nus los ua li hais lawv yeej yog me nyuam tub ces lawv yeej tsi tshua mloog lus ces ws… kuv txiv los kuv txiv kuj xiam thaum peb tuaj txog teb chaws no tau 5 xyoo, ces kuv txiv xiam lawm thiab ces, tshuav kuv niam ib leeg xwb ces kuv niam tu cov me nyuam los kuj nyuaj nyuaj rau kuv niam thiab, ces kuv niam yeej tau qhuab qhia lawv ntau zog kuv vim hais tias lawv yog me nyuam tub lawv kuj khib dwb thiab, ces lawv kuj muab kev lom zem saib hlob dua ces lawv kuj ua rau kuv niam nyuaj siab thiab ces kuv niam kuj tau qhuab qhia lawv ntau dua kuv. Hm..hm..uas..tej yam es koj tham los ntawm no, ua puas yog cov es koj niam koj txiv qhia koj ntawd nav, koj ho xav tias tseem ceeb li cas thiab koj ho yuav qhia koj cov me tub me nyuam li cas? Tej co, kuv niam thiab kuv txiv qhia kuv no mas yeej, kuv xav tias yeej tseem ceeb kawg nkaws rau kuv lub neej. Yog hais tias tsi muaj lawv qhia kuv, kuv tsi paub hais tias xyov kuv lub neej yuav zoo li cas tab sis kuv zoo siab hais tias kuv niam thiab kuv txiv lawv txaus siab yus, lawv tu yus hlob los lawv tseem qhuab qhia yus kom yus txim txiaj thiab. Yus yog ib tug me nyuam tsi, hais yus yog ib tug ntxhais ib tug tub, kuv xav tias yuav tsum tau fwm yus niam yus txiv yuav tau tsum rau siab kawm ntawv, yus yuav tsum tau xyaum ua yus lub neej kom zoo. Tsi hais thaum yus tseem yog hluas los tsi hais thaum yus muaj cuab muaj yig los yuav tsum tau ua yus lub neej kom zoo komyus tej me nyuam pom tau hais tias yus ua yus lub neej zoo es lawv thiaj li xyaum ua neeg zoo. Thaum uas lawv loj hlob los lawd los yus thiaj tsi muaj kev nyuaj siab, thiaj tsis muaj kev uas…teeb meem tej ntawd rau yus lub cuab lub yig, thiab yus tej me tub me nyuam. Hm..hm.. ok uh.. thaum koj yog hluas nkauj,..nej tej kev mus ua si kom lom zem ho yog dab tsi? Uh…thaum ntawd ces kuv kuj tsi tau loj heev thiab thaum peb tseem nyob sab tim ub oj…tab sis mas, kuv kuj tau nrog kuv cov…phooj ywg los yog nrog cov ntxhais txheeb ze, cov viv ncaus tej ntawd peb kuj tau mus noj Peb Caug lauj, peb mus pov pob lauj..peb sib tw mus ev dej tej ntawd lauj…es saib leej twg ho xub xub ev tau rau hauv yus lub hub kom puv ua ntej tej ntawd thiab uas..peb dhia roj hmab los yog dhia ( rope

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jumping) tej ntawd ua ke...peb ua pos nkaum ua tej ntawd ua ke los ua hide and seek nav, lus meskas ces ua hide and seek. I: K: Hu ua pos nkaum no puas yog? Hum…hum… Uh..hm…thiab uas.. peb mus kav kiab kav khw nrog cov viv ncaus es..sawv daws, nyob li yus mus shopping tej ntawd nav, ces nws muaj taj laj tshav puam ces peb mus uh… taj laj tej ntawd ua si tej ntawd thiab. Es.. thaum koj tseem yog hluas nkauj ntawd…ua li teb chaws meskas no peb muaj dating es thaum nej hluas no nej puas muaj qhov dating ntawd thiab ib yam tham hluas nkauj hluas nraug puas yog, tej zaum koj piav me ntsis tias yog tham hluas nkauj hluas nraug no ho txawv li cas, ho zoo li cas thaum nej nav? Thaum peb nyob sab tim ub mas kuv tsi tau, yus tseem yau, yus tsi, tsi paub tab sis mas cov, yus cov viv ncaus uas lawv loj lawm nav, lawv…tham hluas nraug tej ntawd no ces hluas nraug tuaj ntawm qhov tsev ces tuaj ntxhi ntxhi, lawv twb nrog lawv tham yus tsi paub tias lawv tham dab tsi, ces lawv qhov kev tham ces tham li ntawd rau qhov tias txaj txaj muag nav, hos thaum peb tuaj txog teb chaws no lawm no ces, yus cov uas hluas nraug ces yus yeej tau tham hluas nraug thiab tab sis ua li hais yus nyob tsev zoo zoo lawm ces lawv tsi tau tuaj ntxhi rau yus ces...lawv tuaj no ces lawv yeej thov tso cai ntawn yus niam yus txiv, ces yus niam yus txiv hais tias ok no ces lawv kuj tuaj hauv tsev, lawv tuaj nrog yus tham thiab. Hm...hm…ntawm peb cov hmoob lawv hais txog kev hluas nkauj hluas nraug ntawd, es koj twb muaj cov me nyuam 15…xyoos twb tab tom nyuam qhuav yuav tiav hluas nkauj, yuav tias nkauj thiab tiav…whatever tiav whatever, hm..but.. tiav nraug...koj ho xav hais tias hnuh nyoog twg thiaj yuav yog ib lub hnub nyoog zoo es lawv mam li pib date thiab pib tham hluas nkauj hluas nraug? Kuv xav hais tias, nyob li tam sim no kuv 2 tug nkawv twb tsi tau pib nav, 15 thiab 14 rau qhov wb teach, wb ob niam txiv qhia rau nkawv hais tias yuav tsum tau rau rau siab kawm ntawv ua ntej rau qhov nyob lub teb chaws no nws twb hu ua the land of opportunity education nav, es yuav tau tsum rau siab kawm ntawv es tsi txhob rawm tham hluas nkauj hluas nraug tej ntawd, txhob rawm npaj yus lub neej rau qhov tias yus tham ntxov ces yus yeej yuav sib yuav ntxov nav, ces kuv suggest rau kuv cov me nyuam mas hais tias nej yuav tau tsum tos kom nej twb muaj li17 es thaum nej nyob grade 11 lawm nav, ces nej mam li pib date es, at least nej twb tag high school es nej mam sib paub zoo ces yus, thaum ntawd ces nej mus college ces nejsib tham kom zoo zoo los tau ces mus college tas ces nej mam sib yuav nav, es kom nej tsi txob muaj attachment tej ntawd tsam ib ntsis yus sib tham ntxov ntxov ces yus ho cia li sib yuav ntxov ntxov ces yus uh.. kawm tsi tau ntawv tej ntawd. Thiab tsi tag li ntawd xwb wb yeej encourage wb cov me nyuam hais tias uh…qhov education no yog naj npawb 1 nyob rau hauv nej lub neej yog nej kawm ntaub ntawv siab ces thaum nej sib yuav lawm los nej

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lub neej yuav mus tau zoo nej yuav tsi muaj kev nyuaj siab hos yog tias nej tsi rau siab kawm ntawv es, nej date los yog nej sib tham ntxov ntxov no ces uas..lwm hnub ces nej yuav muaj ntau yam kev nyuaj siab thiab tsi tag li ntawd xwb nej yuav pab tsi tau nej cov me tub me nyuam uas nej yuav yug es lawv loj hlob lawm ces nej yuav pab tsi tau lawm mus kawm ntaub kawm ntawv siab thiab. I: K: I: Hm...hm…uh…puas ta koj tias, koj twb muaj 16 xyoo koj mam yuav txiv puas yog? Uh...hm… Uh...ntawd koj cov phooj ywg ntawd nav, lawv ho muaj pes tsawg xyoo lawm mam ho yuav txiv thiab, tej zaum hlob koj, I mean lawv laus me ntsi los yog lawv hluas me ntsi? Kuv, thaum lub sij hawm ntawd kuv muaj coob tus phooj ywg uas ib co lawv tseem hluas dua kuv 13 – 14 xwb los lawv yuav lawm hos ib co lawv twb as nyub kej zog kuv lawv mam yuav, tab sis mas tu siab ntau muaj coob tus, kuv coob tus viv ncaus los kuv coob tus phooj ywg, lub sij hawm peb kawm high school ua ke ntawd es lawv yuav txiv ua ntej yus los yuav txiv tom qab yus,tam sim no ces lawv cov neej twb puas tag , rau qhov hais tias ib yam li sib yuav tau 4 – 5 xyoos los yog ua li meskas hais ua ntej 10 xyoo ntawd nav ces yus ob niam txiv tseem tab tom muaj crisis tab tom yuav grows xwb ces yog yus tsi siab ntev es yus uh..hla tsi dhau qhov ntawd yus thev tsi dhau qhov ntawd no mav, ces ua rau yus lub neej puas, muaj coob leej ntau tus uas cov phoj ywg lawv cov neej puas tag lawm. Hm...hm...hm...hm…zoo li cov meskas mas lawv pheej xav tias peb cov hmoob mas sib yuav thaum hluas hluas heev nav 13-14 xyoos xwb twb yuav txiv lawm es ntawd yog peb ib qhov culture es yog ib qhov tradition …koj puas xav tias qhov ntawd muaj tseeb thiab los tsi muaj tseeb? Kuv xav hais tias, lub sij hawm peb nyob yav…teb chaws tim ub mas tej zaum nws yuav muaj rau qhov vim hais tias, qhov nws muaj no mas qhov, qhov nws muaj ntawd no mas twb yog vim hais tias yus lub teb chaws ua noj ua haus xwb ces yus tsi tshua muaj education, opportunity tej ntawd tsi tshua chance los ua lwm yam, ruav yog yus yog ib tug poj niam kawm ntawv tiav los yus yeej tsi tau ib txog hauj lwm zoo ua. Cov laus yeej ntseeg hais tias yus yuav txiv lawm ces yus yuav los tu me tub me nyuam, los nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev xwb es uh..thiaj li yog ib tug poj niam tsim txiaj no, ces qhov opportunity ntawd nws tsi tshua muaj rau peb cov poj nia. Tab sis kuv ntseeg tau hais tias thaum peb tuaj txog teb chaws no lawm, muaj tus puav nws yeej yuav, nws yuav txiv ntxov tab sis vim tam sim no kuv pom tau kiag hais tias muaj coob tus uas lawv tseem yog uh..hluas es lawv twb muaj 20, 20 tawm xyoo rov saum no mav, es 20 tawm xyoo los mus between 20 thiab 30 xyoo es lawv tseem tsi sib yuav, lawv twb kawm college tiav, lawv twb mus ua tau tej txoj hauj lwm zoo. Tej zaum lawv twb yog tej tug leader zoo

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rau hauv, hauv tej lub organisation los yog lawv twb yog tej tug leader zoo rau hauv lawv tsev neeg, los yog lawv pab kwv tij mas kuv ntseeg tau hais tias peb cov poj niam hmoob tam sim no nws pauv lawm ntau heev li lawm. I: K: Hm...hm... Nws muaj coob tus uas nws kawm ntawv tiav nws los ua hauj lwm, nws los ua tej tug leader los tuav tej txoj hauj lwm tau nyiaj ntau ces qhov no yog ib qho uas peb cov poj niam hmoob twb nce ib qib siab heev thiab pauv ntau hwwv lawm. Hm...hm...Ok, thaum koj tseem yog tus ntxhais hluas ntawd, tej yam uas koj xav tau thiab koj ntshaw los rau koj tus kheej nav, thaum koj tiav niam ntawd ho yog dab tsi? Kuv qhov kev ntshaw muaj ntau yam rau qhov tias thaum kuv yau mas kuv yeej muaj kev ntshaw ntau yam, rau qhov yus niam yus txiv kuj yog neeg tsi yog neeg nom neeg tswv, ces yus kuj txom nyem thiab ces kuv muaj, kuv kuj ntshaw ntau yam. Yam 1 kuv ntshaw no ces kuv ntshaw kom tau 1 tug txiv es nws hlub hlub kuv nav, thiab kom nws thiab yus no rau siab khwv rau yus lub neej uh…thaum yus sib yuav lawm los yus tsi txhob ua kev nkauj kev nraug tej nawd yus rau siab ua yus lub neej, uh..kom yus tau ib txog hauj lwm zoo ua. Ib tug yuav tau tsum pab ib tug, ib tug yuav tau tsum qhia ib tug yog hais tias tsi txawj los yuav tau tsum qhia, rau qhov kuv nco qab hais tias thaum kuv nyuam qhuav los yuav txiv kuv tsi paub dab tsi li, tab sis kuv tus txiv ntawd mam xeem qhia kuv ua zaub ua mov tej ntawd nws mam xeem qhia kuv tu vaj tu tsev los yog tu kuv tej ntawd nav, muaj yam puav kuv tsi paub, kuv tu ncua nws mam li qhia kuv ces tej yam ntawd yog tej yam kuv ntshaw muv kuj tau lawm. Tsi tag ntawd xwb kuv, qhov 2, kuv ntshaw yog muaj vaj muaj tse nrog luag nyob, tsuav yog tsi muaj ib lub zoo zoo los muaj ib lub hais tias yog yus lub no los mas. Thiab tsi tas interview xwb kuv muaj kev kawm, kuv ntshaw kom muaj kev kawm ntawv mus siab tsuav yog kuv kawm tsi tau ntawv mus siab kuv kawm tag high school es kuv mus 6 lub hli computer xwb los twb tau ib txog hauj lwm zoo lawm ces kuv kuj txaus siab rau kuv txoj hauj lwm, rau qhov tias kuv txoj hauj lwm ntawd los kuj yog ib txoj hauj lwm kuv nyiam thiab nws chalenge rau kuv li. Tsi tag li ntawd xwb kuv kuj ntshaw kom kuv muaj phooj ywg coob thiab muaj cov phooj ywg uas zoo es tsi txhob coj yus mus rau tej yam yuam kev tej ntawd. Qhov kawg ces yog kuv xav kom muaj kev zoo siab nyob rau hauv kuv lub neej thiab nyo rau hauv kuv tsev neeg es kom sawv daws nyob kaj siab lug, tsi txhob muaj kev nyuaj siab, kev tab kaum tej ntawd rau yus lub neej. Ntawm peb cov hmoob muaj ntau tus txiv neej los yuav niam yau tej ntawd, qhov ntawd puas yog ib qho koj ntshai thiab? Qhov ntawv yog ib qho kuv ntshai tshaj plaws ua ntej kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv kuv yeej, kuv yeej soj ntsuam kuv tus txiv tsev neeg me ntsis thiab.

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Uh...hm...hm... Tab sis lawv tsev neeg ntawd tsi muaj leej twg yuav niam hlob niam yau li ces lawv cov kwv tij especially cov kwv tij ntawd xwb ces lawv kuj yog ib tse neeg hais lus zoo, thiab kuj hlub thiab ces kuv thiaj li txaus siab los yuav thiab uas…kuv los yuav tau los lawv kuj coj zoo, thiab lawv kuj ua zoo thiab. Hm...hm…hos koj, puas ta koj piav me ntsi txog phooj ywg tej ntawd nav, zoo li ntawm poj niam hmoob mas kuv tsi tau, kuv yeej tseem yog ib tug ntxhais, kuv niam tus ntxhais, kuv kuj tsi tau yuav txiv tab sis kuv xav noog koj hias tias koj twb yua txiv lawm es...thaum yus yuav txiv ntawd yus puas nrog tus txiv ntawd thiab nws tsev neeg nyob nav, es yus cov phooj ywg yog leej twg maj? Thaum, thaum kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv, thaum kuv ho tsi tau yuav txiv no mas kuv muaj phooj ywg coob ov, tab sis thaum kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv no ces muaj ib ntus kuv yeej tsi muaj phooj ywg li rau qhov hais tias yus yeej tsi paub cog phooj ywg rau leej twg yus ntshai tsam ib ntsi yus cog phooj ywg rau cov phooj ywg yuam kev thiab nav. Cog phooj ywg rau cov uas lawv coj yus mus ua tej yam yuam kev ces ib ntsis yus lub neej ho puas, ces kuv ntshai heev ces, kuv los yuav kuv tus txiv tau ib ntus yeej tsi muaj phooj ywg tab sis mas tam sim no kuv muaj phooj ywg coob heev li rau qhov tias kuv, qhov thib ib ntawd ces yog kuv mus, kuv coj kev cai tshiab lawm ces kuv mus tshawj ces kuv mus nrog cov niam tsev tim tshawj ua Vaj Tswv dej num tej ntawd ces kuv mus nrog lawv koom, ces ua activity tej ntawd ces kuv muaj phooj ywg coob los ntawd , tsi tag li ntawv xwb, ntawm sab kev ntseeg kuv muaj phooj ywg li ntawd, sab kev tsi ntseeg es sab kev uas tseem, kev cai qub los yog cov phooj ywg tsi tau paub Vaj Tswv los kuv kuj muaj coob tus heev li thiab, rau qhov hais tias muv nrog lawv koom volunteer ua dej num tej ntawd ces muaj coob leej ntau tus uas kuv paub es lawv kuj nrog kuv cog phooj ywg zoo thiab ces qhov ntawd yog ib qho zoo rau ntawm kuv lub neej heev. Ok, uh..es koj cov phooj ywg puas yog cov phooj ywg es nyob outside ntawm koj tus txiv cov plans nav? Uh..hm.. yog mas. Ok. Kuv cov phooj ywg ntawd ces yeej yog, tsi yog cov nyob inside li ov rau qhov tias nyob inside ces uh.. yeej tsi muaj cov, kuv cov phooj ywg uas ua phooj ywg zoo zoo rau kuv ces yeej yog cov nyob outside uh tsi hais cov paub Vaj Tswv tsi hais cov paub Vaj Tswv los sav daws yeej yog phooj ywg zoo rau kuv, kuv yeej pom tau hais tias ua ib tug neeg no, yog koj txo fwj chim es koj fwm sawv daws ib yam li yus tus kheej nav, yus yuav tsum tau coj tus tus, yus tsi txob chim tej ntawd thiab yuav tsum tau ua siab ntev xwb ces sawv daws yeej yog yus tus phooj ywg tib yam nkaus li rau qhov hais tias yus yog ib tug neeg yus chim sai sai thiab

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yus thiab yus tsi tsub yus lub siab ntev no ces yus yeej yuav tsi muaj phooj ywg ces uh..ib qho kuv kawm tau ces yog ua siab ntev thiab os txo fwj chim ces yus thiaj li muaj phooj ywg coob heev. I: Hm..hm..zoo li yav tas los zoo li cov, yus tus txiv los yeej yog ntawm cov neeg, lawv tsi xav kom yus muaj phooj ywg , uh outside los, lawv cov neeg ntawd nav, rau qhov lawv ntshai ram…los yog coj yus mus ua phem tej ntawd tab sis koj mas koj yog ib tug neeg kawm ntawv thiab koj ho mus tshawj thiab koj muaj hauj lwm thiab ces koj thiaj muaj phooj ywg coob lawm sab nraum laiv puas yog? Yeah, yog mas. Uh, koj tus, koj tus txiv puas nyuab siab txog hais tias ram lawv ho coj koj mus ua phem tej ntawd? Thaum uh..2 – 3 xyoos wb nyuam qhuav sib yuav ntawd kuv tus txiv yeej nyuaj siab thiab nws yeej ntshai ram kuv coj tau cov phooj ywg uas es nws coj kuv mus poob kev txog kev txhaum los yog ua tej yam tsi zoo es ua rau yus lub neej puas, tab sis tom qab no nws pom tau hais tias kuv yog ib tug neeg zoo thiab txawm yog kuv tawm mus sab nraum los kuv mus yam zoo xwb, uh..qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ces kuvxav hais tias yog yus yog ib tug poj niam es yus kawm ntaub kawm ntawv es yus txawj ntse yus tau ib txog hauj lwm zoo no ces kom yus yuav tau tsum uh.. rau siab ua yus lub neej at the same time thiab es yus txhob xav hais tias yus tus txiv ruam zog yus los yog nws tseem, nws tsi paub tej ntawd ces yus yuav tau hais tias zoo li no ntshai kuv yuav tsi yuav nws, yus yuas tau tsum fwm yus tus txiv, yus yuav tau tsum xav hais tias yog tsi muaj nws ces yus, yus yog ib tug poj niam yus tsi muaj nuj nqe dab tsi yus lub meej mom yeej tsis zoo dab tsi, es yog muaj tus txibv es yus thiaj li tau ib lub npe zoo es yuav tsum…. End of side A. Ib ntsis yus tsev neeg thiab yus tus txiv yuav, lub neej yuav puas thiab. I: Uh, koj puas xav tias cov poj niam es muaj hnub nyoog tshaj koj ntawd nav, lawv puas muaj cov phooj ywg coob npaum li koj, lawv puas muaj cov phooj ywg es nyob outside lawv tus txiv lub crime los yog koj, koj.. are you pretty unsual or it’s normal? Uh..for me it’s normal, rau kuv mas, yeah… Yeah, for you but comparing yourself to cov poj niam es laus tshaj koj ntawd nav? Rau kuv mas normal tab sis kuv, pom tau tias muaj coob tus poj niam uas nws as nyub kej zog kuv muaj coob tus poj niam ntawd nws tsi muaj phooj ywg coob rau

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qhov hais tias nws muaj, tsi yog nws faith tab sis mas nws tus txiv ntshai hais tias ram ib ntsis nws mus cog phooj ywg ces ua rau nws lub neej puas thiab peb hmoob no mas yeej pom tus puav hais tias yog koj kawm ntaub kawm ntawv siab es koj muaj ib txog hauj lwm zoo yog koj nria koj tus txiv ib nyuag nruam zog ces koj cia li hla dhau nws ces tej zaum koj ua tej yam yuam kev ces koj cia li ua txaum thiab nav thiab

ces cia li ua rau lub neej puas lawm thiab ces cov txiv neej lawv muaj ntsis ntshai thiab ces lawv kuj tsi tshua xav tso cov poj niam tawm thiab no los mav. I: K: Ok. Tab sis mas rau kuv no ces no ces kuv xav hais tias yog ib qhov tseem ceeb yog hais tias kuv tsi muaj phooj ywg no ces kuv yeej tsis xav ua neeg nrog kuv tsev neeg li thiab ov rau qhov hais tias kuv cov phooj ywg nws yog ib part raw ntawm kuv ua kuv luv neej kom kuv muaj kev thaj yeeb nav, kom kuv muaj free dom los yog kom kuv muaj kev kaj siab rau ntawd kuv tus kheej es kuv los txog tom tsev los kuv lub siab thiaj tus thiab no naj. Es koj tus txiv ne, nws puas muaj phooj ywg coob npawm li koj thiab mav? Kuv tus txiv nws tsi muaj phooj ywg coob npaum li kuv os nws muaj tus puav tab sis nws tsi muaj cov best friends rau qhov nws yog ib tug neeg uh.. very quiet, nws yog ib tug neeg ntsiag to ntau xwb thiab nws uh.. yog ib tug neeg tsi nyiam nrhiav plaub nrhiav ntug ces nws xav hais tias ram ib ntsis yus mus ua phooj ywg los ram ib ntsis ces luag tej poj niam xav li cas ces yus ho tau plaub tau ntug no ces nws nrog nws cov txheeb ze, ib yam li nws nrog nws tus nervous los yog nrog nws tus brother tej ntawd ua ke xwb tab sis nws tsi tshua nrog sab nraum ua phooj ywg. Uh ok, ok thank you for explain about that, uh…thaum peb tseem nyo teb chaws nplog thiab ua ntej muaj tsov rog ntawd nav. Uh hm.. Thiab thuam muaj tsov rog thiab thaum,peb, tsov rog twb tas ntawd, uh cov poj niam los peb cov poj niam hmoob ntawd peb cov hauj lwm nws yog dab tsi? Uh tej yam uas kuv nco txog lub sij hawm ntawd mas yog….uh..lub sij hawm, ua ntej tsov rog ntawd mas kuv tsi, kuv tsi paub zoo thiab tab sis uh..thaum uas lubsij hawm ua tsov raog ntawd mas kuv paub hais tias kuv nco qab thaum ntawd kuv muaj 6 los 7 xyoo xwb tab sis kuv nco qab hais tias kuv niam, kuv tsi paub hais tias lwm tus poj niam mas zoo li cas tab sis nyob rau ntawd kuv tus kheej kuv nco

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qab hais tias kuv niam mas nws yog tus ua zaub ua mov tej ntawd nws take care paeb tsev neeg, peb cov me tub me nyuam tej ntawd, nws yog tus ntxhua khaub ncaws lauj tus vaj tu tsev lauj..los yog uh.. nrog kuv txiv mus ua liaj ua teb tej ntawd rau qhov tias kuv txiv nyob tom hav rsog ntau xwb ces kuv txiv tsi tshua los tsev, 3 hlis tej ntawd kuv txiv los ib zaug xwb ces, kuv niam yeej yog tus take care peb yog tus tu peb txhua yam kuv niam yeej yog tus...uh make decision no los mav. I: K: Hm hm.. Yeej yog tus main person maked decision rau peb uh.. tsi hais kev uh..ua noj ua haus los yog kev khwv rau tsev neeg tej ntawd los yog mus ua dag ua zog tej ntawd kuv niam yog tus coj peb. Koj hais qhov nov puas uh…usually ntawd peb cov hmoob mas tus yuav ua make a decision mas yog tus txiv xwb puas yog uh.. Uh hm.. Tab sis thaum ua tsov rog no ces yog cov, cov txiv tsi nyob hauv tsev, cov txiv mus ua rog lawm ces uh tshuav tus poj niam xwb, qhov nov puav yog, es cov poj niam ntawd lawv maked a decision lawm nav qhov nov puas yog ib qho fault, txawv me ntsi pauv me ntsi ntawd peb cov hmoob thiab? Yeah uh.. ntawd uh..peb tsev neeg, lwm qhov kuv tsi paub zoo tab sis ntawd peb tsev neeg no mas yeej yog li ntawd rau qhov hais tias ua ntej tsov rog ntawv no mas kuv hnov zem zuag kuv niam lawv hais tias yus yog ib tug poj niam ces yus tsi muaj cai li es yus, ruav yog yus muaj ib lub tswv yim zoo npaum li cas los uh.. tej txiv neej lawv yeej tsi yuav tej tsw yim thiab lawv yeej tsi mloog yus hais no mav ces zoo nkaus li yus yeej tsi muaj cai ua dab tsi li, tab sis lub sij hawm peb ua, muaj tsov rog ntawd no ces kuv txiv tsi nyob lawm, kuv txiv mus ua rog lawm ces tshuav kuv niam peb xwb ces, tsi muaj leej twg maked a decision li ces kuv niam yeej yog tus tau coj peb khiav rau ub rau no thaum muaj tsov rog nyuaj ntawd thiab kuv niam yog tus ntshiav rau peb noj, ntshiav rau peb hnav tej ntawd kom make sure peb cov me nyuam sawv daws los kuj tau noj tau hnav tej ntawd es survive tej ntawd ces kuv niam yog tus ua txhua yam hauv lub vaj lub tsev rau peb. Uh..koj niam nej puas ua uh..mus nrog luag tej muag khoom tej ntawd puas nrog luag tej mus, tom npav kes mus muag tej yam thiab? Thaum peb nyob Looj Ceeb ntawd mas kuv niam muaj ib lub taj laj, kuv niam muaj ib lub taj laj kuv niam muag uh.. kuv niam tuav qaub lauj, kuv niam fawm lauj los yog kuv niam uh..kib fawm lauj thiab muag tej nyuag qhob noom tej ntawd nav, ces kuv niam peb muaj kiag ib lub taj laj nyob rau hauv peb lub tsev

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ces uh…kuv txiv even though kuv txiv tsi nyob lawm los kuv niam kuj uh.. khiav lub taj laj ntawd ces nws kuj pab rau peb tsev neeg support peb tsev neeg survive. I: K: I: K: I: Uh..hm..tab sis lub taj laj ntawd nej twb pib thaum koj txiv tseem nyob hauv, tseem tsi tau mus ua thab haam puas yog? Kuv txiv tsi tau mus peb yeej pib lawm tab sis mas kuv txiv yeej tsi khoom los…ces kuv niam yeej yog tus khiav lub taj laj ntawd. Uh.. ces koj txiv twb pais lawm lov nej sawv daws, koj niam hiab nej tsev neeg nej yuav ua nej thiab? Yeah kuv txiv tsi nyob lawm los uh..peb uh especially kuv yog tus hlob, kuv yeej nrog kuv niam saib lub taj laj ntawd txij tog txij peg. uh hm..uh hm..qhov ntawd kuv pom yog ib qho tseem ceeb zoo li thaum uh..muaj tsov rog ntawd cov poj niam lawv ua business women thiab lawv ua enter personal nav. Yeah yeej yog li yeej tseem ceeb kawg nkaus thiab lub sij haum ua li hais muaj kev kub ntxov li ntawd los cov poj niam lawv tseem ua li ntawd rau qhov tias qhiv ntawd yog ib qho uas thaum koj mus tsi tau tom tej liaj tej teb es koj mus khwv tsi tau los rau qhov tias nyiab laj nyob ze lawm nav ces kuj ntshai tawm thiab ces peb kuj tseem ua luam ntawd tej ntawd thiab nws kuj zoo thiab. Hm hm…ok, uh thaum peb tseem nyob teb chaws nplog tej ntawd, uh txoj hauj lwm twg thiaj yog poj niam txoj? Tam kuv xav mas txij li thaum kuv hlob los es kuv pom no mas poj niam teg dej teg num mas, yus tsi paub tab sis cov laus mas yeej, cov txiv mas yeej ib twm hais rau cov niam hais tias ; poj niam hauj lwm ces yog ua zaub ua mov thiab zov me tub me nyuam nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev xwb tsi pub mus ub mus no, mus ub mus no ntau ram tsi txim txiaj no ces, lawv yeej muab cov poj niam khoo nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev es ntxhua khaub ncaws lauj ua zaub mov lauj, ua zaub mov lauj, zov me nyuam lauj los yog hais tias mus tom teb no ces mus ua teb tej ntawd xwb ces poj niam txoj hauj lwm ces pretty much yog li no ib yam li pub qaib pub npua lauj los yog, txhua yam li no mav, mus taj laj mus yuav zaub tej ntawd ces yeej yog poj niam hauj lwm li. Hm hm..ok yog poj niam cov hauj lwm yog li ntawd es txiv neej cov hauj lwm yog ab ti maj? Txiv neej cov hauj lwm…I don’t know tab sis hm.. tam kuv pom ntawm kuv txiv ua no mas, uh.. kuv txiv mas nws mus so much sab nrauv nws tsi tshua los ces thum nws los no ces, nws teg dej num no ces tej zaum nws mus pab txiav taws tab sis mas, nws txawm, nws txiav tau taws los kuv niam yeej mus nrog nws ev thiab

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kuv yeej mus nrog ev thiab, uh… pretty much zoo nkaus li yog li ntawd ntau los yog lawv muaj laj kam sab nraum, nrog nais Phoo lawv sib tham los yog tej yam ntawd ces lawv ua tab sis dua li ntawd ces yog lawv los txog tsev lawm ces lawv yeej uh los nyob tej lub sij hawm lawv pab saib me nyuam me ntsi os dua li ntawd ces uh…pretty much yeej yog tus niam ua xwb es tus txiv yog tus lam los nyob ntawd kom lub cuab lub yig ho ntsheej no xwb oj… I: K: I: K: I: K: I: K: Zoo li kuv hnov koj hais mas zoo tias poj niam txoj hauj lwm mas yog ua, es ua inside hauv lub tsev xwb tiag. Uh hm.. Hos txiv neej es yog tawm, es tawm mus sab nrauv. Yeah. Los yog you know, public worksyty primery. Yeah, txiv neej yeej uh..tawm sab plublic ntau dua hos poj niam ces yeej yog nyob hauv, hauv vaj hauv tsev privet ntau dua. Hm hm hm ok, uh ntawd, hauv koj tsev neeg ntawd poj niam…uh kev txiav txim yog li cas xwb? Ntawm kuv tsev neeg no ces uh… kuv txiv, kuv pom tau hais tias kuv txiv tsi zoo li luag tej txiv nav, luag tej txiv mas kuv hnov luag hais tias nws control txhua yam ntawm tsev neeg control tsev neeg control tus poj niam mas uh… yeej tsi muaj kev txiav txim ua dab tsi li tab sis ntawm kuv tsev neeg no ces kuv txiv ho txo fwj chim me ntsis thiab, nyob li kuv txiv twb cia kuv mus kawm ntawv nav ces kuv paub tias kuv txo fwj chim, nws kuj cia kuv niam txiav txim uas nws xav hais tias nws need idea los yog tej yam nws xav hais tias kuv niam pab tau no ces nws kuj kom kuv niam pab thiab ces kuv pom tau hais tias ntawm kuv tsev neeg no ces uh.. cov txiv neej los kuj respect cov poj niam thiab. Uh hm hm…ok hos hauv nej pawg kwv tij ntawd ne, ho ntawd, ho txoj kev es uh txiav txim ntawd ho yuav zoo li cas? Hauv peb pawg kwv tij no ces kuv pom tau hais tias muaj coob tus uas lawv, lawv yeej xav tias poj niam no nws, nws tsi muaj nuj nqes dab tsi nav, nws tsuas yog yug me nyuam thiab los nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev tu me tub me nyuam ua zaub ua mov xwb es niam no txhua yam ces tau tsum yog cov txiv neej yog xov txiav txim xwb no ces kuv yeej hnpv cov kwv tij lawv kuj hais li ntawd thiab ces uh nws kuj ua rau kuv feel bad thias yog vim li cas es poj niam thiab txiv neej no Vaj Tswv kuj tsim los ib yam nkaus li tab sis ua cas txiv neej nws ho muaj kev txiav txim ntau dua poj niam, rau qhov poj niam no nws kuj tsi ruam thiab nws kuj muaj lub tswv yim zoo thiab es uh kuv xav, kuv xav tias ua cas ho zoo li ntawd no xwjb os.

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Hm hm, uh koj yog ib yug neeg ua kev cai tshiab thiab ntseeg Vaj Tswv lawm, koj hais qhov quotiending puas pauv ntawd cov, cov hmoob lub tswv yim hais tias cov txiv neej yog cov decision maker hos poj niam yuav yug me nyuam thiab nyob hauv tsev tu me nyuam xwb. Nws pauv lawm ntau heev li, nws, nws yeej pauv ntau kawg nkaus li rau qhov hais tias tam kuv paub mas ua ntej yus tsi tau los ua kev cai tshiab nav yus tseem coj kev cai dab qhuas qub mas, yu, nyob li yus yuav tsum tau tsum r1au mov, cov txiv neej noj mov ua ntej tas nav es seem li cas los yog cov txiv neej noj tag lawm ces cov poj niam mam noj tej ntawd, poj niam tsi muaj cai los noj mov ua ntej ntawd, los yog muaj tej yam make decision xwb cov poj niam tsi muaj cai los make decision, tab sis coj kev cai ntshiab no ces poj niam thiab txiv neej ces muaj cai sib luag zog li, uh, yog hais tias lub tswv yim twg, tus poj niam tawm tuaj los yog tus txiv neej tawm lub tswv yim ntawd tuaj es lub tswv yim twg zoo no ces lawv yeej yuav tib sis li, muab coj los tham tib si li, lawv tsi hais tias txiv neej lub thiaj zoo xwb poj niam lub tsi zoo luag tsi hais li ntawd nav ces luas yeej yuav tswv yim tib yam nkaus li, txawm yog koj yog poj niam yog txiv neej los tib yam nkaus, thiab cov txiv uas lawv coj kev cai tshiab lawm no ces lawv fwm tus poj niam dua, lawv respect tus poj niam sua thiab uh zoo nkaus li lawv tsi tshua control tus poj niam nav, ces zoo nkaus li yus ib nyuas muaj free dom zog. Ntawm peb cov hmoob nov, koj hais peb nyob ze qhov twg lawm tam sim no, uh peb tseem yog cov niag xav tias oh…poj niam ruam ruam, poj niam txawj kawm hauj lwm xwb nyob hauv tsev tsi txhob make decision los yog peb twb lom zem qhov me ntsis hais tias uh poj niam thiab txiv neej cov tswv yim, tug twb lub tswv yim zoo los peb yuav tib si? Ntawm peb cov hmoob no ces kuv, tam kuv xav no ces uh peb nyob ib nrab li ov, half and half rau qhov tias ib co paub Vaj Twv los tsi yog hais tias los paub Vaj Tswv xwb es los, los yog coj kev cai tshiab xwb es lawv yuav kho tau lawv tus kheej es pauv tau li no nav tej co lawv paub tab sis l awv pauv tsi tau, tej cov lawv paub lawv pauv tau ho cov tseem coj kev cai dab qhuas qub los kuj muaj tus puav nws kuj txaus siab pauv los rau qhov, rau sab zoo lawm thiab nws kuj cia poj niam uh poj niam yuav poj niam tswv yim tej ntawd thiab, kuj cia poj niam yog cov make decision thiab tab sis zoo nkaus peb tseem nyob ib nrab ib nrab li rau qhov tias ib co lawv tseem believe hais tias, ib co txiv neej mas lawav tseem believe hais tias yus yog ib tug poj niam no ces yus teg dejteg num ces yeej tseem yog kawg yug me tub me nyuam nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev, tu vaj tu tsev tu me tub me nyuam ua zaub mov noj xwb no ces, lawv yeej tseem muaj lub hlwb xav tau li no ces uh ua li kuv hais, kuv xav tias peb nyob teb chaws meskas no lawm mas peb yuav tau tsum tsi pauv ntau los peb yuav tsum tau pauv me ntsis hais tias poj niam no txawm yog nws yug me tub me nyuam nws ua zaub ua mov noj los nws yeej muaj qhov uas nws yuaav mus kawm tau ntaub tau ntawv, qhov yuav mus ua tau hauj lwm los pab tsev neeg thiab es kom 2 leeg txob txom txom nyem rau qhov yus ib leeg ua xwb ces yus tseem txom nyem tshaj 2 leeg ua no nav.

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Hm hm … ok, uh puag ta koj hais tias thaum peb nyob teb chaws no los cov poj niam tej tug tsi tau mus yuav txiv lawm, tus mus yuav txiv los lawv yeej muaj cov hauj lwm zoo, lawv ua cov leaders nav, tab sis thaum koj nyob teb chaws Nplog thiag Thaib teb ntawd puas muaj cov poj niam es koj pom tias yog leaders? Thaum ntawd kuv tseem yau kuv tsi pom tab sis kuv yeej hnov tus puav, hnov lawv hais tus puav hais tiav ib yam lawv ua nai khu los yog lawv ua nais maum tej ntawd nav, ua thaj maum tej ntawd, uh yus tsi paub lawv npe yus hnov xwb tab sis mas yeej muaj tus puav thiab, hos muaj ib cov, kuv ho hnov tias lawv kawm tau npav los tab sis mas lawv tus txiv tsi pub lawv mus ua hauj lwm ces lawv cia li los nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev los yug me tub me nyuam lawm xwb. Uh hm… ok, uh ntawm cov nais khu thiab es mus ua thaj muam no nav, koj puas xav tias cov txiv neej puas xav li cas rau law thiab los yog lawv, lawv puas pom hais tias lawv yog leaders thiab? Uh…yog cov uas lawv twb tau mus ua nais khu los nais maum los yog tuav iteg dej num ntawd lawm no mas, lawv tus txiv yeej pom tau hais tias lawv yog ib tug coj zoo thiab ntseeg lawv thiab thiaj ntso lawv mus ua teg dej num ntawd lawv thiaj ua tau hos muaj ib co mas nws yeej xav hais tias lawv yog poj niam xwb ces ntshai teg dej num ntawd ua tsi tau thiab ua los ntshai nws yuav tsi zoo nav, ces yuav tsi success no mas muaj tej cov nws yeej xav tau li ntawd thiab. Uh, zaj, kuv xav noog koj me ntsis txog uh meskas hu ua family planning no uh tej zaum kuv xav noog ntawm koj niam thiab koj tsev neeg tso mam li noog ntawm koj tus kheej, uh hauv nej leej twg ho yog tus os los tso tswv yim txog hais tias muaj pes tsawg tus, yuav yuav pes tsawg me nyuam no nav? Uh hm… uh tam kuv to taub mas rau ntawm kuv niam kuv txiv los yog los rau cov uas laus thaum lawv tseem nyob tim ub tej ntawd es, lawv yeej tseem xav hais tias yog hais tias yus yug me nyuam no ces, ntawd mas nyob li tu niam tsuav yog nws xav yug tsawg tug xwb los tus txiv hais tias « koj tau yuav tsum yug coos kuaj tag ces mam tsum xwb nab, » ces cov poj niam yeej tsis muaj cai uh yuav los plan li ces cov poj niam yeej yuav tau yug me nyuam coos kuaj uas me nyuam tag es tsi muaj lawm voj? Es niam yuav muaj ib lub sij hawm uas me nyuam tag naj? Tsi, tsi muaj li mav ces tej co lawv thiaj li yug 10 tawm tus tej ntawd li mav ces tej co yug tsi paub tas li ces uh yeej yug nyuam coob coob, tab sis hmoob pheej believe hais tias, yog hais tias koj yug coob no ces koj cov me nyuam, koj ua liaj ua teb xwb no ces cov me nyuam pab tau yus ces yus survive no nav, ces lawv thiaj pheej kom yug me nyuam coob coob thiab.

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Qhov ntawd yeej yog ib, yeej muaj ib qho ntawd thiab rau qhov nyob teb chaws ntawd mas cov me nyuam ntawd, lawv yeej muaj coob coob tug xiam, muaj mob tej ntawd thiab ne puas yog? Hm hm, ces nws yeej yog ib qho tsi zoo uh tej co me nyuam nws kuj tsi loj hlob zoo thiab ces tsi muaj tshuaj kho thiab ces lawv kuj muaj mob muaj nkeeg, lawv kuj xiam thiab tsi tas li ntawd qhov uh lawv pheej yug coob ntawm no los kom pab es thiaj li khwv tau los yug rau tsev neeg thiab yuav support tau tsev neeg tej ntawd coob leej ces, sib pab ces haj yam khwv tau ntau xwb. Ces kuv niam thiab kuv txiv nkawv yeej tsi muaj famly planning dab tsi li, yog tam kuv paub cov txheeb ze, kuv xwb los yeej tsi muaj family planning li txoj kev txiav txim muaj me tub me nyuam ntawd. Es ob tug niam txiv ntawd nkawv puas sib tham… zoo li yeej tsis sib tham li, hos tus txiv yog tus txiav txim siav hais tias yuav muaj pes tawg tus me nyuam no puas yog? Uh hm…nkawv yeej tsi sib tham li yeej tsis, yeej tsis paub txog li ces ua li hais yus yog poj niam ces yus yeej tsis muaj plan dab tsi li ces yog tus txiv tias yug no ces yus yug xwb es yus yeej txiav txim tsi tau thiab. Es yog, yog yus yog ib tug poj niam yus tsi xav muaj me nyuam ntxiv lawm nav, yus yuav ua li cas maj? Yus yog ib tug poj niam es yus tsi xav muaj me nyuam ntxiv lawm los yeej tsis tau rau qhov tias tus txiv yog tus control tus txiv yog tus maked decision ces lub sij hawm ntawd yus yog npoj niam yus tsi muaj cai yuav los make decision. Ntawm teb chaws meskas, lawv muaj cov tshuaj birthcontrol uh muaj ntau yam birthcontrol, yog yus tsi xav muaj me nyuam nav hos peb cov hmoob peb puas muaj ib yam, ib ib co birthcontrol thiab? Peb cov hmoob mas tej zaum yuav muaj tus puav uh laus lawv kuj paub muab tshuaj hmoob kom yus tsi txhob muaj me nyuam thiab tab sis kuv tsi tau hnov kiag thiab, ntawm kuv tus kheej no ces uh thaum wb yug tag wb tu me nyuam thib 4 nav ces wb, kuv mus phais plab, tab sis kuv ho tsi yog phais plab thiab kuv yog mus ua li lawv hais muab txoj hnyuv cauj nav, lawv taus scorpy los ab tsi,ces uh kuv mus kom lawv muab fais fab charge kuv txoj hnyuv kom txhob muaj me nyuam ces uh ua li lawv qhov case mas lawv hais tias every three all of one thousand ces before year ntawd yuav tsum muaj me nyuam nav, yog tias yus tsi lucky es yus yog one all of those three ces zoo nkaus li kuv yog one of those three nav ces, uh after 4 hlis ces kuv rov qab muaj tus thib 5 ces uh thaum ntawd kuv, kuv tus husband mas thawj thawj mas nws tsi kam kuv mus ov tab sis mas kuv hais rau nws hais tias yog kuv lub body lawm uh tus muaj mob muaj nkeeg los yog kuv, tus nyuaj siab yog kuv nws tsi yog tus nyuaj siab, kom nws txhob txhawj es cia kuv mus through qhov process ntawd no ces kuv thiaj mus through zaum

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first time ces 4 hlis tom qab ces kuv pregnant, kuv muaj tus thib 5 ces kuv tus yawg hais kuv tias nws tsi txaus siab nws yuav kom wb mus foob tus taam maum ntawd hais tias yog vim li cas twb ua qhov procedure ntawd tseem muaj, kuv hais rau nws tias kuv tsi kam mus foob rau qhov tus me nyuam no nws zoo li ib qho miracle rau wb nav, zoo nkaus ib qho koob hmoov rau wb taig tiag xwb ces cia yug no nav ces uh wb thiaj yug, wb thiaj txaus siab es kuv thiaj li yug tus me nyuam thib 5 ntawd , ces kuv yug nws tag ces 2 months later ces kuv rov qab mus through qhov procedure tab sis mas zaum 2nd time ces kuv mus through ces kuv mus tus thaam maum txawv thiab, kuv mus kom lawav muab nws uh carge 3 ntus nav, muab txoj hnyuv ntawd charge 3 ntus ces after twb tau 3 xyoos ntawd ces kuv tsi muaj lawm so hoppefully it’s working hm…tab sis uh mainly ces hauv wb family no ces kuv yog tus make qhov decision ntawd rau qhov kuv tus husband hais tias you know lub body yeej yog kuv lub tiag li kuv hais nav ces kuv yuam tsum tau make qhov decision thiaj li haum kuv. I: K: Hm koj, koj puas xav tias qhov koj, lwm tus txiv neej hmoob ho xav li nws xav thiab los nws, nws ho xaav txawv lwm tus txiv neej hmoob? Kuv xav mas tej zaum uh yuav muaj tus puav yuav xav li nws xav hais tias txaus siab cia tus poj niam ua li ntawd thiab tab sis muaj coob tus yuav tsi kam rau qhov hais tias lawv uh, lawv xav tias ram ib ntsis ho tsi muaj me nyuam lawm es ram ib ntsis yus ho rua xav xav yuav me nyuam ces uh lawv yuav tsi kam qhov ntawd thiab tej zaum lawv yuav tsi txaus siab cia lawv tus poj niam yog tus txiav txim hais tias yuav yuav me nyuam coob los me nyuam tsawg mas tej zaum yuav yog ib qho nyuaj rau lawv, nyob ntawm saib lawv 2 niam txiv lawv tham zoo li cas, ho ntawm kuv mas, kuv tus txiv los nws kuj txaus siab thiab kuv los kuj yog tus make decision hais tias even though yog tias kuv txawm tsi yuav nws lawm los kuv yeej tsi yuav me nyuam ntxiv li lawm kuv yeej ruas yuav li ntawd xwb no ces kuv yeej txaus siab thiab nws yeej txaus siab thiab es thiaj li cia kuv mus through qhov procedure ntawd. Uh ntawm peb cov hmoob thaum yus hluas tej ntawd, zoo li luag tej tsi tau saib tsi taus yus, uh yus tsi tau muaj koob hmoo ab tsi, los yog yus tsi tau muaj ib qho uh zoo li ib yam lawv tsi tau respect yus nav, yus tsi tau muaj ib qho place nyob hauv sociaty tab sis, ntawm koj tus kheej uh koj xav txog saib lub sij hawm twg uh koj niam koj txiv cov kwv tij, cov tsev neeg, cov pej xeem ntawd thiaj li saib taus koj, los yog lawv nav thawm taus koj, lawv ho hwm koj yog lub sij hawm twg? Uh… rau kuv tus kheej no mas, kuv xav hais tias lub sij haum uas yus tus txiv los yog cov neeg nav thwm yus no ces yog lub sij hawm uas thaum yu tau me nyuam nav es yus tseem nyob ntsuab hlis tej ntawd luag thiaj li ua pluas puav zaub mov tej ntawd pub rau yus noj thiab luag thiaj tu yus me ntsis uh…tab sis dhau li ntawd no ces…nws yeej muaj respect thiab tab sis nws, nws rawg zog , nws tsis tshua muaj npaum li thaum uas yus tseem nyob nruab hlis ntawd, uh hauv kuv tsev neeg mas zoo li ntawd, ho ntawm kuv kiag thiab kuv tus husband kiag no ces nws ho txawv thiab, thaum kuv tau me nyuam no nws respect kuv dua tab sis

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thaum kuv uh…thaum uas lub sij haum kuv regular ntawd es kuv tsis nyob nruab hlis nawd nws yeej respect kuv thiab mav tab sis a litle less tab sis mas yog hais no ces nws yeej yog ib tug neeg respect kuv kawg li thiab yog kuv muab nws coj los compare rau lwm cov txiv neej, rau qhov hais tias nws yeej pab kuv khoom sib tej ntawd, khoom hnyav tej ntawd los nws yeej pab kuv nqa nws yeej pab kuv ua, nws yeej tu lub vaj lub tsev uh pab kuv uh evn though kuv twb yog ib tug poj niam es ua li hais cov txiv neej uas lawv tsi, lawv tsi, lawv xav tias poj niam no nws yog tus tu vaj tu tsev tu me tub me nyuam no los kuv tus txiv yeej nrog kuv tu me tub me nyuam yeej pab kuv qhia ntawv rau tej me tub me nyuam, nws yeej pab kuv tu vaj tu tsev, nws yeej uh, nws yeej pab txhua yam li no mav ces muab coj los mus hais no ces kuv tus txiv, nws yog ib exception los yog ib qho koob hmoov uas kuv tau nav rau ntawm kuv lub neej thiab rau qhov tias uh kuv muab coj los mus nria kuv cov muj thiab kuv cov viv ncaus los yog cov neeg sab nrauv no ces lawv cov lneej nws txawv kuv lub, lawv cov txiv tsi tshua fwm lawv thiab uh thiab lawv cov txiv saib tsi taus lawv thiab uh tsi pab lawv ua ub ua no tej ntawd. I: K: Es koj tus, koj tus txiv ua li cas rau koj thiaj qhia tau koj hais tias nws saib taus koj? Uh kuv tus txiv qhov nws, qhov uas nws ua rau kuv hais tias nws saib taus kuv no mas yog even though kuv teg dej teg num uas yog li peb hmoo, cov txiv neej hmoob ib txwm hais tias yog poj niam li teg dej teg num nav, es yus yog txiv neej yus tsi txhob ua, los nws yeej ua, nws yeej pab kuv tu vaj tu tsev uh nws pab kuv zov tej me tub me nyuam uh even though kuv bu-busy tam sim no kuv pab volontier ua dej num rau tim church thiab ces ib week no tej zaum kuv uh tsi nyob hauv tsev li, kuv lawb kiag hauj lwm 5 moo ces kuv mus rau tim church lawm, kuv mus paj xoos tej ntawd ces 5 moo paj xoos txog 10 moo tsaus ntuj tej ntawd lauj uh ib hmo, ib week no kuv mus li 3 hmos rau 4 hmos, tej zaum week end kuv tseem mus thiab ces nws yeej ua zaub ua mov rau kuv cov me nyuam noj qhia lawv ntawv uh muab lawv da dej tej ntawd, txhua yam nws yeej ua tag li nav ces kuv los txog tsev ces lawv twb pu tag lawm ces 10 moo, 10 moo tawm tej ntawd ces kuv los pu, tag kis 7 moo xwb kuv kuv tsov qab mus ua hauj lwm lawm ces, uh txawm yog nws ua ib txog hauj lwm full time ib yam li kuv es nws lawb los txog tsev kuv tsi los nws yeej yog tus los take care txhua yam ces kuv xav hais tias yog ua ib tug txiv neej hmoob es yog zoo li ntawd no ces nws yeej yog zoo kawg li rau hauv kuv lub neej nav. Uh hm, uh hm… nws pab txhawb koj lub zog heev. Uh hm yeah nws yeej pab kuv kawg li. Puas ta koj hais ib lo lus hais tias uh thaum, koj tsev ntawd lawv, lawv saib taus koj heev yog thaum lub sij hawm es koj muaj me nyuam uh koj tau, koj tseem nyob nruab hlis ntawd nav es ram yus, lawv ho xav li cas rau tus poj niam es muaj tsi taus me nyuam maj? Lawv puas saib taus nws thiab?

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Uh cov poj niam muaj tsi taus me nyuam no ces uh nyob li kuv hnov thiab muaj tus puav uas kuv paub txog kiag, lawv yeej, cov txiv neej yeej saib tsi tshua taus thiab cov txiv neej yeej hais tias yog muaj tsi me nyuam ces lawv tau tsum yuav niam yau xwb, rau qhov hais tias yog tsi muaj me nyuam ces tsi zoo dab tsi li no ces uh coob tus lawv cia li mus yuav ib tug poj niam los ntxiv es saib puas muaj me nyuam. Hm hm uh… hos koj ho hais, koj tsi hais tab sis uh thaum wb tham txog qhov hais tias saib taus thiab lawv uh nav thwm no mas yog, yog lub sij hawm yus twb yuav txiv lawm es yus twb muaj me nyuam lawm nav, cov neeg es nws tsi, nws tsi tau yuav txiv ntawd nev, ib yam tus poj niam nav tsi tau yuav txiv ntawd cov pej xeem ho xav li cas rau nws thiab lawv puas saib taus nws thiab.? Uh thuam peb nyob tim ub mas kuv tsi hnov rau qhov tias cov yuav txiv coob xwb, cov tsi yuav ces tej zaum tab sis nyob teb chaws meskas no mas kuv paub tias muaj coob tus uas nws yeej rau siab kawm ntawv, nws rau siab ua hauj lwm es nws yeej muaj vaj muaj tse nyob lawm tab sis nws tseem tsi tau muaj txiv tej ntawd, muaj tej co txiv neej mas yus yeej hnov lawv hais tias « tus pog ntawd es nws twb, as nyub twb laus npawm li ntawv es twb ua nkauj laug es nws tseem tsi tau yuav txiv es li ntawd ces ntshai tsi txim txiaj lawm voj los yog niag zoo li ntawd ces ntshai ua nkauj laug ntshai yuav tsi muaj leej twg yuav yuav lawm » tsis zoo no yeej tau hnov lawv cav thiab li ntawd. Oh…hm hm. Ces lawv yeej, yog hais no ces lawv yeej saib tsi taus cov uas poj niam uas ib yam li yus as nyub kej zog es yus mam yuav txiv ces lawv yeej saib tsi tshua taus. Hos cov txiv neej ne, peb yeej muaj cov txiv neej zoo ib yam lawv cov txiv neej tsi yuav poj niam thiab puas yog , hos peb, peb cov hmoob peb ho xav li cas rau cov tub uas, tub hluas ntawd tej zaum muaj as nyu, muaj as nyub me ntsis es tsi tau yuav poj niam no peb ho xav li cas rau lawv? Uh xuaj laim mas txawm yog cov txiv neej ntawd laawv tsi tau muaj poj niam los, tsi tau yuav poj niam los lawv yeej tsi hais cas, lawv yeej xav tias oh… maj mam nyob maj mam ntshiav maj mam yuav os, lawv yeej tsi, lawv yeej tsi uh tsi muaj hais tias oh…nws yog nraug laus lawm os, ruas yog poj niam lawv thiaj hais xwb, txiv neej lawv yeej tsi hais li. Hm cov txiv neej ces muaj as nyub loj me ntsi los tsi ua cas puas yog? Uh hm yeah.

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Uh hm ok. Uh ntawm nov peb yuav tham me ntsis txog uas thaum ua tsov rog ntawd uh thaum ntawd koj tseem me thiab uh zoo koj tias, thaum nej los ntawm teb chaws Nplog rau Thaib teb koj muaj pes rawg xyoo lawm? Thaum peb los rau Thaib teb ntawd kuv muaj 7xyoo. Ok uh koj puas nco qab hais tias ua li cas koj tsev neeg hotxiav txim siab hais tias yuav tsum khiav ntawm teb chaws Nplog los rau Thaib teb? Thaum uh nyob Nplog teb es peb tab tom muaj tsov muaj rog ntawd mas kuv nco qab hais tias kuv txiv mus ua rog ces thaum lub sij hawm uas nyiab laj tuaj twb yuav ti peb ntawd ces kuv txiv rov qab los ces kuv txiv tsi kam khiav li, kuv txiv hais tias peb nyob tib ywm hauv Nplog teb nov es yog lawv, lawv khiav tag lawm los lwm hnub es yus thiaj tau nom ua tej ntawd es nyob twb ywm tsis txhob khiav no ces kuv txiv tsi kam tuaj li es, kuv txiv tawv tawv tag zog li ces kuv niam yog tus hais tias kom tuaj xwb, yuav tau tsum tuaj yog tsis tuaj mas, hnov luag hais tias yog nyiab laj tuaj txog mas nyiab laj yuav tau tsum muab yus cov me nyuam tua li yus muaj me nyuam tub rau qhov thaum ntawd kuv niam muaj kuv ib leeg ntxhais xwb ces kuv niam muaj 4 tug tub, ces kuv niam ntshai hais tias ram ib ntsis nyiab laj tuaj ces nyiab laj ho muab yus cov me nyuam tub tej ntawd tua no ces, kuv niam yuav kom khiav ces kuv txiv tsi khiav li ces, ces kuv niam hais tias yog koj tsi khiav no ces peb cov niam tub peb mus peb es peb tso koj tseg no ces kuv niam cia li hu taxi ces, ho tsi muaj taxi lawm ces kuv txiv saib kuv niam sawv ntxov ntxov los, kuv niam los ua ntshais, kuv niam los npaj ntim txhuv, npaj zaub npaj mov txhua yam lawm ces uh kuv niam npaj peb cov me nyuam khiav lawm ces kuv txiv saib peb yuav mus tiag tiag ces, kuv txiv thiaj li lawv peb qab. Hm koj txiv yog ib tug thab ham uh ua hauj lwm rau general Vaj Pov ntawd uh, thaum lub sij hawm nej khiav ntawd Vaj Pov twb khiav ntawm teb chaws Nplog los tsi tau khiav? Thaum ntawd nai phoo Vaj Pov twb khiav lawm, twb khiav ua ntej lawm tshuav peb, thaum ntawd nyiab laj twb tuaj yuav luag ti hauv zos…Looj Ceeb. Tab sis koj txiv yeej ntseeg hais tias uh yuav yeej es yog thaum twg no ces yus nyob ces yus thiaj tau ua nom no puas yog? Uh hm kuv txiv ntseeg hais tias yog luag tej khiav tag lawm es yog hais tias nai phoo Vaj Pov mus es nws rov qab los, nyob li teb chaws tus los yog li cas yog nws raov pab los no ces yus tseen nyob no ces yus yuav tau nom ua kuv txiv thiaj tsi kam khiav. Uh hm ok, uh nej khiav ntawm teb chaws Nplog los rau Thaib, uh koj puas, koj qhia me ntsi rau kuv saib thaum nejlos txog Thaib teb ntawd es nej ho nyob lub twg thiab qhov experience ntawd ho zoo li cas?

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Ok, uh thaum peb khiav…thaum peb khiav los no ces uh peb muaj me nyuam coob coob ces kuv niam ntshai ntshai ram ib ntsis peb mus caij nyoob hoom ces peb poob ces kuv niam tsi coj peb mus nce nyoob hoom ces peb uh ntiav luv fai mus rau tim Naas Xus, oh… mus rau Phab Kheb, thaum ntawd peb nyob uh, peb nyob pem Looj Ceeb ces peb ntiav luv fai mus rau tim Phab Kheb ces peb ho mus txog nram ib tog kev peb lub fai tuag, ces peb tau mus ko taw 2 xoob moos rau tim Phab Kheb, peb mus tsog tim ces peb mus pu ib hmos tag kis kaj ntug ces, hnov cov, hnov luag tej qaw zom zaws hais tias nyoob hoom tseem tseem yuav rov qab los tos neeg no ces kuv niam peb ntiav luv fai tim rov qab los txog Looj Ceeb na has lub nyooj hoom xuv thaib, lub last one tab tom ya kiag, yeah ces kuv niam peb tsi muaj nyoob hoom ces peb tsi muaj luv fais li ces peb thiaj tau mus pw peb lub tsev qub tau 2 hmos ces peb mus pw tau 2 hmos ces peb thiaj rov qab npaj khiav ces peb thiaj rov qab taug ko taw tuaj mus rau uh, xyov yog peb taug ko taw los yog peb tuaj luv, kuv tsi nco qab li thaum ntawd ces peb thiaj li rov qab mus rau tim Phab Kheb ces txog tim ces peb mam li mus rau nram Nas Xus, ces peb mus txog nram Nas Xus ces kuv niam hiab kuv txiv nkawv mam li ntiav ib tug hmoob uh nws ua ntaub ntawv nav, nws paub, nws nrog nrog nyiab laj nyob, thaum ntawd nyiab laj twb tuaj rauNas Xus tag, ces mam li ua ntaub ntawv ces mam dag hais tias kuv niam nkawv yuav…xyov yog kuv niam yuav mus thov me nyuam los tu los ua cas no, los xyov yog kuv niam yuav coj me nyuam mus kawm ntawv los ab tsi no ces kuv tsi nco qab lawm ov thaum ntawd kuv tseem yau tab sis kuv hnov zem zuag, ces kuv niam thiaj li coj peb khiav ua ntej, ces kuv niam coj peb khiav na has ces peb mus ces peb tsi muaj hmoo ces peb mus txog nram ib tog kev, ces peb lub luv fai tuag, ces kuv niam muab peb tso rau ib yim uh..ib yim hmoob los xyov yog ib yim, ib yim txheeb ze nyob nram xwb. Koj txiv tsi nrog nej los? Kuv txiv tsis nrog peb rau qhov, yog kuv txiv nrog peb no ces ram ib ntsis nyiab laj paub, rau qhov nyiab laj zov kev tag , ces kuv niam thiajrov qab los hais kuv txiv , kuv niam muab peb tso nrog ib yim hmoob nyob nrav ces kuv niam rov qab hais kuv txiv hais tias lub fai tuag lawm es peb mus tsis dhau no ces kuv txiv mam ua ntaub ntawv rau kuv txiv ces kuv txiv mam ua ntaub ntawv tias, kuv niam yog tus mus thov me nyuam los tu, hov kuv txiv yuav mus ua ab tsi nram Vees Cas no ces, kuv txiv thiab kuv niam nkawv mam rov qab tuaj tos tau peb nram uas ib tog kev nrav ces nkawv mam coj peb mus nram Vees Cas, ces peb mus txog rau nram Vees Cas peb mus pw tau 1-2 hmos nrav ces peb mam li niag kev nrav hla dej tuaj mus rau sab tim no, ces thaum peb hla dej tuaj ces…. End tape one side B

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Ok, koj hais tias uh cov nplog, thaum, es thaum nej los txog ntawm naj khoom ntawd nav, nej caij nkoj los yog nej ua dej… mus sab tim xwb los nej ua cas maj? Thaum ntawd ces nyiab laj zov kev li lawm ces uh…3 moo sawv ntxov ces peb nyiag kev hla dhau txoj me nyuam kev ntawd rau sab ntawm ntug dej ces, peb caij nkoj, peb caij 2 lub nkoj ces peb hla, peb caij nkoj tuaj txog uh sab Thaib teb tim no, ces uh…nyiab laj yeej tua tua thiab mav, yeej tua tua thiab tab sis mas tsi tsaug peb ces peb ho muaj hmoo ces peb cai tuaj txog rau sab Thaib teb tim no ces cov thaib tim no mam li txais tos peb, thaum peb nyuam qhuav tuaj txog sab Thaib teb tim no mas cov thaib txais tos peb zoo thiab lawv kuj pub zaub pub mov rau peb noj, lawv kuj pub chaw peb pw, tab si thaum peb los txog rau pem Noom Qhais, ces peb tsi muaj tsev nyob ces uh… peb tau pua, muab ntaub yas tej ntawd coj los thaiv ua tsev nyob thiab uh peb tau muab tej nyuag lev tej ntawd pua zaum xwb ces ib tag mo tej ntawd ces los nag hlob hlob ces nag nyab peb tej ntawd tag li ces peb tsi tau chaw nyob ces peb, kuv nco qab qhov no mas kuv nco qab tshaj plaws kuv niam peb, thawj thawj hmo peb khiav mus pw hauv lawv ib lub hoob naab, thaib ib lub hoob naab es tsw tsw phem tab sis mas los nag tsho hwv lawm ces muaj me nyuam me hiab ces tsi paub ua cas ces kuv niam peb mus pw hauv thaib ib lub hoob naab, ces dhau ntawd ces peb mam li tsub tsev ntaub kaus nyob rau qhov peb yog cov los tom qab zog ces lawv tsi pub tsev rau peb nyob lawm, tsev puv tas lawm ces kuv niam peb tau tsub tsev ntaub kaus nyob nrav ces uh…peb, thaum uas lawv tuaj tos cov neeg rau tom uh…thaum lawv tuaj tos cov neeg khiav mus rau tom Naab Phoos ces tiag tiag kuv niam peb yog cov tau mus, peb muaj npe nyob tib si tab sis mas muaj ib cov, lawv muaj ib co neeg txheeb ze los tom qab ces lawv cia li muab lawv cov neeg txheeb ze ntawd nkag npav mus lawm nav, ces kuv niam peb poob qab ces peb tsi tau mus rau tom Nab Phoos. Ces peb thiaj tau nyob nram Noom Qhais tau ntshai yuav laug ib xyyoos ntawd pob, ces tag ntawd ces peb mam li los mus rau pem uh, peb mam li los mus rau pem…uh Npaab Vib Nais, tab sis thaum peb nyob nram Noom Qhais ntawd mas peb muaj teeb meem kawg li auj, rau qhov tias cov thaib ntawd lawv saib tsi taus peb nawj, lawv saib tsi taus peb es lawv saib yus zoo nkaus li neeg tsi tsim txiaj ntsia lawv yus zoo nkaus li tej dev xwb mas, lawv tsav luv fai tej ntawd los, lawv, yog yus hla kev tej ntawd lawv yeej tsi xyuas yus thiab, uh… yus mus yuav zaub yuav mov noj tej ntawd los zoo nkaus li lawv yeej saib tsi taus yus li nav. Uh koj puas nco qab uh es, es hauv Noom Qhais hauv puas muaj ib tug uh thawj coj hmoob es ua hauj lwm nrog cov thaib ntawd maj los tsi muaj? Thaum ntawd kuv tsi nco qab li es xyov puas muaj li ov, thaum ntawd kuv tsi nco qb lawm xyov puas muaj.

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Uh hm uh hm. Hos thaum nej khiav ntawm uh teb chaws Nplog los rau Thaib teb ntawd yog xyoo ab tsi nab? Thaum ntawd yog lub 6 hli ntuj, zoo nkaus li yog 6 hli ntuj pib tsi sub es xyoo 75 os, 1975. Ces nyuam qhuav thaum, nyuam qhuav pib es teb chaws nyuam qhuav tawg. Ok nej nyob hauv Noom Qhais pes tsawg xyoo ces nej mam ho los ntawd Npaab Vib Nais pes tsawg xyoo? Uh around 1 xyoos nyov. Ho nej ho los nyob npaab Vib Nais ntev npaum cas nej mam nej ho mam li tuaj teb chaws? Peb los nyob hauv npaab Vib Nais tau li 3 xyoos ntau los 4 xyoos ntawd poj, yeah ces peb khiav los nyob hauv npaab Vib Nais ces, thaum peb los nyob hauv npaab Vib Nais no mas, lawv, uh cov tib, tib cov neeg, cov neeg sab ntsau lawv kuj xa zaub xa mov tuaj hiab tab sis mas xa tsi txaus li thiab ces peb kuj tau uh, kuv niam lawv kuj tau mus zog lauslos yog kuj ua tau me mezaub tej ntawd kom tau noj ces lub sij hawm kuv niam mus ua zog ces kuv txiv nyob hauv tsev zov me nyuam ces kuv nrog kuv niam mus ua zog kuv niam wb mus ua zog uh caij taxi mus li 3 xoob moos kev es wb mus pw li 1 hlis 1 hlis tej ntawd wb mam li los ces lub sij hawm ntawd mas uh yeej tsi muaj dab tsi los support yus tsev neeg li ces yus yeej yuav tsum tau mus ua zog es kom yus tau nyiaj yus thiaj los support tau yus tsev neeg. Uh hauv npaab Vib Nais ntawd uh, txawv ntawd uh, uh Noom Qhais, ua li cas koj hais tias hauv Noom Qhais lawv cov thaib lawv saib tsi taus yus, zoo li lawv phem phem hee nav, hos hauv npaab Vib Nais ntawd zoo li ntawd thiab los txawv me ntsi lawm? Hauv npaab Vib Nais los lawv yeej saib tsi taus yus thiab rau qhov tias yus mus tom tej taj laj es yus mus yuav zaub, yuav ub yuav no los lawv yeej ua kimkim rau yus lawv cov neeg no ces lawv tsis ua kim hos yus yog hmoob no ces lawv yeej ua kim zog rau yus thiab uh lawv yeej tai tshua muab, ib yam li lawv sib, tej zaum ces tsi muaj zaub muaj mov ntau ces yeej sib txeeb ces uh lawv yeej cia lawv cov neeg yuav ua ntej yus mam yuav to qab tej ntawd thiab muaj tej zaum yus taug kev tej ntawd xwb los tej tug yawg laus saib tsi taus yus ces luag nti qob ncaug tej ntawd, thiab kuv yeej hnov tus puav hais tias ib yam peb cov hmoob es nws mus ua si tej ntawd es nyob li lawv mus taj laj tej ntawd outside ntawm cov xoom , cov camps ntawd nav, es yeej muaj thaib tej ntawd siab phem es muab cov nxthais hluas hmoob uas tseem yau ntawd uh khuj tej ntawd, muab rape tej ntawd thiab.

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Yeah kuv tseem yuav noog koj rau qhov puas ta koj piav tias koj thiab koj niam nej sawv daws mus, neb 2 leeg mus ua hauj lwm sab nrau no puas yog , uh es neb mus ntev thiab ov puas yog? Yeah wb mus ib hlis. Koj puas ntshai, neb puas, neb nrog lwm tus mus los yog neb mus neb 2 leeg xwb neb puas ntshai thiab maj? Wb mus no ces wb nrog li ib pab neeg li 10 tawm leej mus thiab ov, ces yog peb mus coob coob li ntawd no ces peb tsi ntshai, wb kuj tsi mus wb rau qhov tias wb yeej ntshai thiab ces , wb mus no ces uh kuv tus niam hluas thaum ntawd peb, peb twb los tx0g npaab Vib Nais kuv niam mam li yug kuv tus niam hluas ces , nws uas ba-baby ces wb mus no ces kuv mus zov nws ces kuv niam thiaj tau ues ua teb thiab. Uh hm es cov txiv neej pua pais maj? Uh cov txiv mus thiab mas lawv cov, lawv cov sab nrau no ces lawv cov txiv neej mus ho ruas yog kuv niam wb n o ces tsi muaj neeg zov me nyuam cesd kuv txiv zov me nyuam, zov cov hlob uh, zov cov boys naj muaj 4 tug tub kuv txiv zov lawv ces kuv niam wb mus ua zog. Es neb mus ua cov zog, neb mus ua zog ab tsi, neb mus ua ab tsi? Uh mus dais pob kws lauj,tej zaum mus dob nroj tej ntawd lauj los yog hais tias yus mus hlais nplej tej nawd. Hm hm, es puas tau nyiaj ntau thiab mav? Lub sij hawm ntawd ces nyiaj yeej tsi tshua muaj nuj nqes thiab kuj tsis tau ntau thiab tab sis mas yog yus mus 1 hlis tej ntawd ces yus yeej tau me ntsis coj los mus yug yus tsev neeg, kav yus tsev neeg li 3-4 hlis thiab mab. Ok, thaum ntawd ces cov thaib tseem pub yus cov, cov hmoob mus sab nrauv mus ua zog tej ntawd yeej, lawv yeej, were always like that or, or? Uh thaum beginning thaib pub hmoob mus ua zog me ntsis thiab mav tab sis mas tom qab no ces thaib kaw kev thaib tsi pub tawm li law, thaib uh, yog leej twg no ces leej twg yuav tau tsum ua ntawv los yog muaj reason txaus los yog yuav tsum phaaj lawv lub uh, lawv lub uas lawv hu ua door, tab sis yog lawv lub, lawv lub gate naj, koj yuav tau tsum pass lawv lub gate es koj muaj ntaub ntawv es lawv thiaj pub koj mus. Uh ok, koj ho xav tias ua cas lawv ho pauv, lawv ho pauv ua li nawd lawm maj?

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Kuv tsi paub zoo thiab tab sis mas tam kuv xav ntawm kuv tus kheej xwb mas kuv xav tias tej zaum yog hais tias yus cov neeg pheej tawm mus ua zog los tawm mus rau sab nrauv ntau ces ntshai tej zaum lawv ntshai ram ib ntsis yus ho coj yeeb coj tshuaj los muag ho mus ntshiav teeb meem li cas los rau lawv thiab los yog, los xyov yog ua li cas kuv tsis paub kuv xav mas kuv xav li ntawd xwb. Uh ok, uh puas ta koj hais me ntsis txog lawv nqa zaub mov tuaj rau cov hmoob noj es lawv ho txiav txim siab li cas hais tias ib tsev neeg no ho tau npaum li no, lawv used cov uh, uh cov pratices li cas to decide how much could you give you? Uh ntawm kuv to taub mas lub sij hawm peb mus lav mas nyob li lawv hais tias 1 vaas thiv no ces koj tsev neeg, yog koj muaj 8 leej ces tej zaum lawv muab koj 8 khob txhuv lov los yog li cas nav ces lawv yeej luj kom txaus yog tias koj tsev neeg coob no ces lawv muab I nyuag ntau zog, koj tsev nee tsawg ces lawv muab tsawg. Uh ok, ok uh hauv thaum nej nyob npaab Vib Nais ntawd, uh, nej ho ua ab tsi thiab, uh nej puas muaj sij hawm mus kawm ntawv los yog puas muaj sij hawm ua lwm yam thiab? Uh thaum ntawd peb kuj mus… kuv mus kawm ntawv me ntsis thisb peb kuj mus ev dej lauj los yog peb mus ntxhua khaub ncaws lauj los yog mus noj Peb Caug tej ntawd los yog pov pob tej ntawd lauj, nws kuj muaj ntau yam lom zem kawg thiab mav. Uh… uh, koj, yog thaum koj xav txog npaab Vib Nais no koj nco qhov ab tsi tshaj, or what, what do you remember most? Uh tsis nco qab tsi li as, hm hm hm, rau qhov tias zoo nkaus li thaum yus tuaj txog hauv no ces txom nyem thiab uh tsi yog txom nyem ntawm luawb noj luawb haus xwb tab sis txom nyem zaub mov uh txom nyem ntawm yus tus kheej hais tias ua cas yus tsi muaj teb chaws nrog luag nyob, yus ho kho siab hais tias ua cas yus ib co phooj ywg ibco viv ncaus uas yus ib txwm ua ke lawv ho tsi nrog yus thiab lawv ho nyob lawv ib qh lawm thiab no ces yus txom nyem ntau ntau yam li ces zoo nkaus li uh yus tsi tshua nco qab hais tias zoo los tsis zoo rau yus li es yus ruas xav hais tias ntshai tej zaum yuav yog ibqho chaw uas ntshai tsis zoo rau yus zoo nkaus ib qho chaw uas yus tuaj so ib npliag xwb nav. uh hm uh hm, hos nyob hauv npaab Vib Nais hauv pua muaj ib yam ab tsi zoo, koj, koj xav, thaum koj xav txog lub sij hawm ntawd, koj puas xav tau ib yam ab tsi zoo? Uh… Like one good thing about the camp.

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kuv xav tias qhov zoo tshaj ces rus yog hais tias peb tuaj txog hauv es lawv ho pub, lawv ho muaj vaj muaj tse rau peb nyob. Uh. Qhov ntawd yog ib qho zoo. Uh hm uh hm. Hos dua li lwm yam ces uh… kuv tsi pom muaj lwm yam zoo. thaum nej nyob hauv npaab Vib Nais hauv koj puas pom hais tias uh ntawm cov poj niam thiab cov txiv neej ntawd nav puas muaj uh ib qho different, how they wouls treat them? Uh poj niam hiab txiv neej, yog hais tias ntawm thaib treat peb no ces yeej same li rau qhov tias yeejtsi muaj nuj nqes ivb yam tab sis hais tias ntawm poj nianm thiab txiv neej, peb yeej tseem pretty much zoo ib yam li thaum peb nyob Nplog teb, cov txiv neej yeej tseem yog cov meake decision los yeej tseem yog cov coj noj coj ua es poj niam tes dej num ces yeej tseem yog nyob hauv vaj hauv tsev tu me tub me nyuam. Uh hm… tab iss mas lub sij hawm ntawd ces zoo nkaus thaib ho tso cai rau cov uh poj niam hiab txiv neej mus kawm ntawv tib si lawm nav ces zoo nkaus li uh sawv daws ho tau kawm ntawv ib yam nav. Yeah yog leej twg es nws ho muaj lub peem xwm ho yuav mus kawm no los lawv kuj tso cai thiab ces me nyuam tub me nyuam ntxhais los kuj tau kawm ntawv thiab mav. Es nej kawm ntawv ntawd uh, uh nej puas tau them nyiaj maj? Uh kuv nco qab mas zoo nkaus peb tsi tau them nyiaj. Lawv puas require cov me nyuam sawv daws mus kawm ntawv los yog? Lawv tsis require os, nyob ntawm tsev neeg twg yog leej twg xav cia leej twg tus me nyuam mus kawm ces cia xwb hos leej twg tsis cia mus kawm ces tsi cia mus xwb. Es kawm lus thaib xwb lov, los lus aas kiv thiab? Uh, peb kawm lus thaib xwb tab sis ua ntej peb yuav tuaj rau teb chaws meskas no tshuav 3 lub hlis peb yuav tuaj ntawd lawv kuj qhia me me ntawv meskas,

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lawv qhia me me ntawv meskas kom peb paub thiab es peb tuaj los peb thaij siv tau thiab. I: K: I: Uh hm hm…zoo hiab mav, uh koj tsev ntawd txiav txim siab tuaj teb chaws nov uh… xyoo ab tsi nav? Xyoo os peb tuaj rau teb no ces yog xyoo 80. Lub 4 hlis ntuj 1980. Ua cas koj niam koj txiv ho txia v txim siab hais tias yuav tsum tuaj teb chaws meskas no xwb rau qhov puag tas koj piav tias koj txiv tub tsi xav tuaj teb chaws Thaib thiab thaib teb ne nom puas yog? Yeah… kuv txiv mas kuv txiv yeej tsi xav tuaj tim Nplog teb tuaj tab sis mas thaum uas peb yuav tuaj teb chaws no no ces kuv kuj pom tau hais tias, rau qhov kuv txiv yog ib tug neeg uas nws txo fwj cim thiab nws uh, nws xam tau hais tias education yog ib yam tseem ceem nav rau qhov tias nws yog ib tug neeg paub ntaub paub nawv thiab ces nws xav li ntawd nav, nws, nws xav li ntawd nav nws kuj xav hais tias yog, hnov luag tej hais tias tuaj rau teb chaws meskas no ces nws yog tias the land of opportunity no nav, ces nws xav hais tias tej me tub me nyuam tej zaum yuav tau kawm ntaub kawm ntawv no ces nws thiaj li uh, kuv niam hiab kuv txiv nkawv ob leeg yij txiav txim siab tib si ov. Txaus siab yeej cia peb tuaj, tsi yog kuv txiv txiav txim los tsis yog kuv niam xwb tab sis ob leeg tib si es nkawv txaus siab tso peb uh sawv daws tuaj rau teb chaws no. Nkawv pom hais tias tuaj teb chaws no yuav ua li cas rau nej es nkawv thiaj coj nej tuaj rau teb chaws no? Nkawv xav hais tias tuaj rau teb chaws no tej zaum peb yuav tau kawm ntaub kawm ntawv peb yuav tsi txom nyem li lawv nyob tim ub, uh tej zaum yuav muaj vaj muaj tse nyob muaj dej num tej ntawd ua thiab tej zaum yus y uav muaj kev yuj, kev yuj pheej los yog kev thaj yeeb tej ntawdkaj siab lug. Thaum koj tsev neeg tuaj teb chaws no koj muaj pes tsawg xyoo? Thaum peb tuaj rau teb chaws meskas no kuv muaj uh 11 xyoos. Uh, nej tuaj txog teb chaws meskas no yam twg thiaj kawm tau yooj yim thiaj kawm tau sai tshauj plaws? Thaum peb tuaj txog rau teb chaws no lawm tej yam uas yooj yim yog kawm ntawv, mus kawm ntawv tej ntawd thiab pab cov laus zov me nyuam rau qhov tias lub sij hawm kuv mus kawm ntawv los txog ces kuv niam hiab kuv txiv mus kawm ntawv tuas tsaus ntuj lawm ces kuv pab nkawv zov me nyuam, thiab uh tej yam uas nyuaj heev rau peb mas yog yus nyuaj siab rau qhov muaj ke nyuaj siab, muaj kev kho siab rau qhov tias yus tej neeg txhee ze los tsi nyob ze yus, yus kuj nyob deb,yus nrog meskas nyob tsev appartment tej ntawd ces meskas tsi yiam

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yus ces meskas kuj cem yus thiab kuj nto qob ncaus tej ntawd rau yus thiab, uh tsi tas li ntswd xwb los nws kuj ua rau ib qho kho kho siab rau cov laus, cov laus tsi xav nyob li nav ces lub sij hawm ntawd peb tuaj ces nyuaj heev rau kuv niam hiab kuv txiv rau qhov nkawv pheej taij hais tias nkawv yuav tsov qab mus tim ub xwb tsi xav nyob rau qhov nkawv tuaj txog teb chaws no los nkawv twb tsi muaj phooj ywg, nkawv twg tsi paub lus meskas, nkawv twb tsis paub kev mus ub mus no tej ntawd nav ces tsi paub ntaub paub ntawv ces nws nyuaj nyuaj rau nkawv. I: K: I: K: Es nej tuaj poob rau qhov twg maj? Peb tuaj poob rau hauv St Paul, peb tuaj poob rau hauv St Paul ces peb tuaj nyob rau hauv St Paul tau ib hli ces peb mus nyob rau tom minneapolis. Es uh nej tsi muaj kwv tij coob los cas koj niam koj txiv nkawv ho kho siab npauv maj? Peb yeej muaj thiab tab sis mas uh ib yam li sawv daws tsi nyob ua ke ces nyias nyob nyias ib qho ces yus tsi txawj tsav luv fai, tsi paub mus xyuas luag thiab ces yus mus taj laj los tsi muaj leej twg coj yus mus taj laj yuav zaub yuav mov tej ntawd los noj li, ces uh ua rau nkawv nyuaj nyuaj siab. Ok uh what, what is the immediate skill needed your adjustment process, tej zaum koj tsi nqees tab sis thaum ntawd koj tseem me tab sis yog koj xav txog hais tias thaum nej nyuam qhuav tuaj txog kiag ntawd xwb ov, yeah uh cov skill es yuav pab koj tsev neeg uh tseem ceeb tshaj cov ntawd yog ab tsi, thiaj pab tau koj tsev neeg? Tej yam uas yooj yim rau peb ces yog yus txawj ua noj ua haus tej ntawd, uh yus txawj tu vaj tu tsev tej ntawd uh tab sis mas nws yeej uh nws, ruav yog yus txawj ua los nwws yeej nyuaj thiab rau qhov tias yus tsi paub siv meskas tej khoom uh, khoom uh appliance tej ntawd nav, ua zaub ua mov tej ntawd ces nws yij yog ib qho nyuaj rau yus thiab tab sis mas yus nyob ib ntus ces nws kuj, yus kuj paub lawm thiab kuj pab tau yus thiab. Uh thaum pua ta wb tham mas wb yeej tham tias koj txiv mus ua thaus nyob teb chaws Thaib, thiab teb chaws Nplog ntawd nws yog ib tug thab ham hos koj niam zov me nyuam thiab tu nej thiab nws ho yog ib tug business woman thaum uas ua rog ntawd thiab, koj hais cov skill lawv muaj tuaj txog teb chaws no puas pab tau lawv thiab? Uh cov ntawd, lub sij hawm peb tuaj txog teb chaws no los uh zoo nkaus li nws pab tsi tau thiab rau qhov hais tias koj tuaj txog teb chaws no lawm koj yuav tau tsum paub ntawv meskas, koj yuav tau tsum kawm tawm los thiab koj thiaj ua tau business tej ntawd thiab ces yog kev noj kev haus tej ntawd no ces yus ua yus hauv vaj hauv tsev los yeej tau lawm uh qhov zoo tshaj ces yog yus muaj dej nyob

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rau ntawd, yus muaj lub hoob naab nyob ntawm rau yus sis tab sis uh tej yam txuj ci li ntawm no ces kuv xav hais tias pab tsi tau yus tam sim ntawd. I: Uh hm uh hm ok, uh ntawm koj xav txog peb hmoob lub neej nyob rau teb chaws no, koj xav tias lub neej no, peb lub neej nyob rau teb chaws no zoo tshaj rau cov poj niam los yog zoo tshaj rau cov txiv neej? Kuv xav mas lub neej nyob teb chaws meskas no mas zoo rau ob leeg, zoo rau tus poj niam thiab tus txiv tib si rau qhov tias even though koj txawm yog poj niam thiab yog txiv neej los ko yeej muaj vaj huam sib luag zos thiab uh koj yeej ua tau tib yam nkaus li nav yog hais tias koj rau siab kawm ntawv xwb ces uh dej num los koj yeej muaj ua vaj tse los koj yeej muaj nyob ces ces nws yeej good opportunity rau both man thiab woman tib si. Uh hm ok, thaum luag tej noog hais tias uh koj lub home los yog koj lub tsev, home country yog, uh yog lub twg no koj hais li cas koj teb li cas? Ntawm kuv tus kheej no mas kuv nyob sab tim qub tsawg dua ces kuv tuaj hlob teb chaws no ces nyob sab teb chaws no ntev dua ces kuv xav hais tias teb chaws meskas no nws yog kuv lub vaj lub tsev rau kuv lawm. Hos koj ho xav li cas txog teb chaws Nplog maj, uh koj, koj xav tias ntawd uh, koj, koj qhov relationship puag teb chaws Nplog ho zoo li cas? Kuv xav hais tias teb chaws Nplog nws kuj yog ib lub teb chaws zoo thiab tab sis uh yog rau kuv tus kheej no ces zoo nkaus li yog ib lub teb chaws uas yus tau los paub thiab yus tau los pom, los so nyob rau hauv xwb nav, es nws tsi yog ib lub teb chaws ruaj khov ces nws tsi yog yus ib lub vaj lub tsev rau yus cea uh kuv kuj zoo siab hais tias peb kuj los nyob rau tiam uas zoo koob hmoov kawg nkaus es peb kuj tau tuaj nyob rau teb chaws no, peb niam peb txiv kuj tau coj peb tuaj nyob rau teb chaws meskas no peb thiaj li tau kawm ntaub kawm ntawv, peb thiaj li muaj kev txawj kev ntse peb thiaj nrog luag muaj vaj muaj tse nyob thiaj tsi txom nyem, peb thiaj li muaj dej num ua tej ntawd los yog hais tias nyob li tej co tsi tau paub tsi tau coj kev cai tshiab lo yog tsi tau paub txog luag lwm haiv neeg los yus thiaj li tau los mus paub thiab yus tau kos mus paub haiv neeg meskas no nws yog ib qho uas, nws yog ib qho zoo rau yws nav, thiab yus ho muaj vaj hom sib luag zog ces rau poj niam rau txiv neej ces nws yog ib qho good opportunity rau peb txhua leej txhua tus. Uh, uh koj teb tias ntawm teb chaws meskas no yog koj lub vaj tsev, uh ib co hmoob tej zaum cov laus navxav hais tias teb chaws Nplog mas yog lawv lub vaj tsev, koj ho uh, I guess koj ho xav li cas rau cov ntawd thiab? Kuv xav tias uh it’s ok yog hais tias lawv hais li ntawd los nws tsi ua cas rau qhov tias yog lawv nyob sab tim ntev dua thiab, sab tim no ces lawv nyob ntev

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ces lawv feel zoo nkaus sab tim yog lawv lub vaj lub tsev lawm nav, ces uh sab tim los nws yeej muaj free dowm kawg thiab tab sis mas tsi hais kev noj, kev noj kev nyob los yog opportunity es yuav kom yus nce ib qeb es kom yus ua tau business siab los muaj nyiaj muaj txiaj los yog muaj vaj tse nyob zoo no ces nws tsi tshua muaj nav, ces uh tej zaum cov laus no ces lawv ua liaj ua teb xwb no ces nws kuj yog ib qho zoo rau lawv ces kuv yeej tsi mind kuv xav tias lawv xav li ntawd los nws yeej yog li ntawd thiab hos peb cov hluas peb tuaj nyob teb chaws no ntev los peb ho xav tias teb chaws no yog peb vaj peb tsev los nws kuj yog thiab. I: K: I: K: I: K: Ok uh koj puas yog, koj puas tau yog xaam xaj meskas? Tam sim no kuv tsi tau yog uh kuv yuav tseem tsi tau txiav txim siab, hm kuv tseem yog permenant resident xwb. Koj puas xav tias koj xav ua xaam xaj meskas thiab? Uh kuv yeej xav tau hais tias tej zaum sai sai no kuv yuav uh txiav txim siab los ua citizen. Uh hm ok, uh…koj xav li cas rau cov hmoob es uh lawv ho txiav txim siab hais tias yuav nrog cov meskas uh sib tu mus ua hauj lwm tom port bakanbasat? Uh hauv kuv no ces kuv xav hais tias, peb cov hmoob tsi hais poj niam txiv neej yog hais tias thaum peb mus l uag sib tu ua nom ua tswv tej ntawd lawm, kuv xav hais tias nws yeej yog ib qho zoo kawg nkaus rau peb uas ib qho opportunity rau peb tau nce ib qeb los mus ua ib tug thawj coj, tab sis kuv xav hais tias peb yuav tsum tau nco ntsoov hais tias peb tseem yog hmoob es even though peb tau los tuav ib teg dej teg num los ua ib tug thawj coj li ntawd, peb yuav tau tsum nco ntsoov ua dej num pab rau peb cov neeg thiab yuav tau tsum uh sib hlub, sib pab, tsi txob hais tias yus tau tuav ib teg dej num siab lawm ces yus yuav khib oom, yus yuav oj los yog hais tias yus yuav tsi txo fwj chim es yuav tsi hlub yus haiv neeg es yus yuav ua dab tsi no ces yus yuav li yus yog tus loj loj es yus yuav ua kom dhau yus cov neeg no ces, li ntawd no ces yus tsi tas los tuav teg dej num ntawd los tau rau qhov tias yus los tuav los tsi muaj nuj nqes dab tsi rau yus thiab yus twb tsi pab yus cov neeg nav. Uh hm uh hm, kooj puas pom tias qhov ntawd puas yog ib qho zoo rau peb cov hmoob thiab, qhov es peb los nrog meskas khiav ua tej hauj lwm no thiab? Kuv xav tias nws yog ib qho zoo kawg nkaus uas peb tseem muaj cov kawm ntaub kawm ntawv siab es tseem tau los nrog meskas sib tu uh ua tej dej num ua nom ua tswv no los yog ua ib tug thawj coj nws yog ib opportunity zoo rau peb heev.

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Uh hm ok, uh thaum tsov rog mtawd nav koj uh, koj puas paub hais tias peb ua tsov rog thiab, thaum thaum peb tseem nyob teb chaws Nplog ntawd es peb uh ua ros ntawd nav? Uh lub sij haum ntawd kuv yeej paub mav rau qhov tias thaum ntawd kuv yeej muaj 7 xyoo ces kuv yeej nco hais tias kuv niam lawv yeej peb khiav rau ub rau no thiab kuv yeej nco qab hais tias kuv yeej pab kuv niam lawv ev zaub ev mov tej ntawd lauj, yeej tau nrog lawv taug ko taw tej ntawv lauj, ces kuv yeej nco ntsoov hais tias yusyeej muaj kev txhawj kev ntshai, yus hnov nyiab laj tej ntawd tua phom xwb ces yus yeej txhawj yeej ntshai kuv yeej paub txog. Hm hm, uh thaum ntawd puas muaj tej tug nom tswv thawj coj es tseem ua tseem ceeb heev es koj nco qab txog thiab koj nyiam? Thaum ntawd kuv tseem yau, kuv hmov luag hais tais muaj ntau tus no tab sis uh, hos tus kuv paub tshaj plaws ces yog tus nai Phoo Vaj Pov. Uh. Nai Phoo Vaj Pov, nai Phoo Vaj Pov xwb thiaj yog tus uas kuv paub zoo hos dua li cov no ces kuv paub tsi zoo rau qhov kuv hnov luag hais xwb tab sis kuv tsi tau paub kiag. Uh hm, uh ntawm teb chaws Meskas nov uh cov poj niam es ua, ua thawj coj uh los yog uh meskas hais tias leadership no nav, ntawm, ntawm peb cov hmoob no qhov ntawd puas pauv thiab los yog thaum, rau qhov zoo li thaum koj piav mas, thaum nyob Thaib teb thiab nyob teb chaws Nplog mas, cov ua nom tswv mas yog cov ua nom tswv yog cov txiv neej xwb nev puas yog, hos peb tuaj txog teb chaws no klos qhov ntawd ho pauv thiab tsis pauv lawm rua peb cov hmoob? Kuv uh,…thaum, kuv xav hais tias, thaum peb nyob tim ub mas peb yeej tsi muaj qhov opportunity los mus ua thawj coj li tab sis nyob teb chaws no kuv xav tias peb cov poj niam yeej muaj opportunity los ua thawj coj yog hais tias yus tsi xav ua xwb yog yus xav ua yus yeej tsau siab kawm ntawv ces ces yus yeej muaj txoj cai los mus ua thawj coj nyob rau public sab nrauv los yog nyob rau, los ua thawj coj rau zej rau zog tej ntawd nws yeej yog ib qho pauv lawm ntau kawg nkaus li uas peb cov poj niam kuj tau los mus ua thawj coj li ntawd nws yog ib qho zoo rau peb, kuv pom tau li ntawd. Uh hauv peb lav Minnesota no cov poj niam thawj coj koj pom lawv ho yog leej twg thiab? Uh nws yeej muaj coob tus uas kuv, kuv paub thiab mav ; muaj 2-3 tug uh kuv yeej xav tias lawv yog thawj coj rau qhov tias lawv yog ib tug niam tsev tab sis lawv yeej tau teg dej teg num zoo thiab uh kuv paub lawv, lawv nrog peb mus church ua ke nav, es lawv yeej yog cov neeg zoo, lawv kuj qhia kuv kom kuv xyaum ua lub neej kom zoo tej ntawd uh kom yuav tau tsum xyaum coj tus cwj

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pwm kom zoo tej ntawd thiab tsi tas li ntawd xwb uh ib tug kuv paub zoo tshaj mas nws yog maiv kaus Ham, rau qhov nws yog ib tug uas kuv pom tau hais tias nws yog ib tug thawj coj zoo thiab nws kuj coj tau peb cov poj niam hmoob tsi hais cov muaj txiv cov tsis muaj los mus koom tes ua dej num ua ke tej ntawd los mus ua volonteer hauj lwm tej ntawd, nws kuj yog ib tug leader zoo uas kuv xyaum tau thiab, nkauj Lig Vaj los nws kuj, thaum ub nws kuj tau los mus established lub uh, los yog nws los stard lub?{Vos} hmong women associetion ntawd nws kuj yog ib tug thawj coj uas coj tau zoo, kuv kuj pom tau zoo thiab kuj ua rau kuv xaum tau tej yam zoo. I: Cov poj niam no, thawj coj no yog ib co es leaders moob poj niam nav, lawv hais tau peb ntau yam, lawv uh muab idea rau peb koj xav tias cov txiv neej puas xav hais tias lawv yog leaders rau peb cov hmoob thiab los yog lawv yog leaders rau peb cov poj niam hmoob xwb? Tam kuv to taub mas cov txiv neej lawv yeej tsi xav tias lawv yog leaders rau peb cov hmoob, tej zaum lawv ruas xav tias leaders rau ntawm peb cov poj niam thiab ntawm tej tug xwb naj, nws xav xwb nav hos cov txiv neej hmoob no mas tus puav kuv yeej hnov lawv hais tias uh lawv tsi yog leaders nav, lawv ruas hais tias ib tug poj niam hmoob ua hauj lwm xwb ces lawv tsis thwm hais tias nws yog ib tug thawj coj. Ces thawj coj tab sis tahwj coj rau poj niam xwb puas yog? Uh hm. Peb yuav ua li cas es yuav pauv peb cov hmoob li cas es cov txiv neej ntawd thiaj xav tau hais tias uh poj niam thiab txiv neej, tus poj niam xwb los yog nws muaj tswv yim zoo ces zoo, yog zoo rau peb cov hmoob nav ces nws yog ib tug leader rau peb sawv daws no nav? Kuv xav tias uh peb need to educate peb cov txiv hmoob, txiv neej hmoob rau qhov hais tias lawv tseem tsi tau to taub hais tias peb yog ib tug poj niam no even though peb yeej ua ib teg dej teg num sab nraum full time los peb tseem los mus tu tej me tub me nyuam, peb tseem los tu lub vaj lub tsev, peb tseem los ua zsub ua mov noj, peb tseem ua tau ntau yam heev li thiab nav ces txwm yog peb tuav dej num sab nraum los peb tseem los ua tau hauv tsev thiab ces txawm yog peb yog ib tug thawj coj rau sab nraum es rau ib lub koom haum xwb los peb kuj zoo nkaus li ib tug thawj coj nyob rau hauv peb tsev neeg, nyob rau hauv peb tej me tub me nyuam lawm thiab ces kuv xav hais tias yuav kom peb cia li pauv lawv mas yuav pauv tsi tau tab sis mas tej zaum nws slowly maj mam pauv thiab maj mam educate cov txiv neej es kom lawv to taub hais tias peb yog poj niam no peb kuj ua tau ntau yam dej num thiab sab nraum los peb ua tau sab hauv los peb ua tau es kom lawv yuav tau tsum saib peb muaj nuj nqes thiab, kom lawv yuav tsum tau pom tau hais tias tej yam peb ua li no yog peb ua los mus txhawb lawv xwb yog tsis muaj peb cov poj niam ces tsi muaj leej twg yuav txhawb lawv cov txiv

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neej thiab, ces yog muaj peb cov poj niam es peb thiaj li los txhawb lawv lub neej zoo thiab lawv yuav tau tsum pom hais tias ua li ntawd zoo thiab. I: K: Uh hm ok, uh nyob teb chaws no poj niam muaj cai ua tej yam dab tsi es ua tsi tau thaum peb nyob teb chaws Thaib thiab teb chaws Nplog? Nyob rau teb chaws meskas no kuv pom tau hais tias peb cov poj niam muaj lub peev xwm uh tau los ua ib tug thawj coj los yog ua ib tug leader uh vim peb muaj kev kawm ntaub kawm ntawv siab thiab peb muaj vaj huam sib luag zos nrog cov txiv neej thiab peb kuj muaj vaj huam sib luag zog nrog lawv haiv neeg thiab tsi tas li ntawd xwb uh tus poj niam twg yog nws xav thiab yog nws nyiam tias nws los ua ib tug thawj coj los yog xav tau tau ib teg dej teg num zoo ces yog nws rau siab kawm ntawv xwb nws yeej yuav tsum los pab coj tau lwm cov los yog nws yeej xyaum ua tau lub neej zoo ces ua rau lwm cov hlob los cov me nyuam ntxhais hlob los pom hais tias nws ua tau zoo ces lawv thiaj yuav los xyaum thiab yuav ua li nws ua thiab ces qohv nov yog ib qho zoo rau uh peb txhua leej txhua tus. Uh hm uh hm ok, hos uh ntawm koj tus kheej ntawd koj pom tias poj niam hmoob kev txawj pab haiv neeg hmoob uas uh sab nrauv nav, ho yog dab tsi? Uh nws muaj, nws kuj muaj ntau ntau yam uh kev uas lawv pab tau uh tsi hais cov hmoob los yog tsi hais lwm haiv neeg sab nrauv mas yog ; nws los mus ua ib tug, ua nai khu poj, tab sis nws ua nai khu no mas nws tsi yog ua rau sab nrauv xwb ov, nws los txog vaj txog tsev los nws yeej los qhia tej me tub me nyuam ces nws yeej yog ua nai khu rau tej me tub me nyuam tib si li oj, tsi tas li ntawd xwb lauj muaj social worker los peb kuj muaj cov ua lawyer lawm lauj cov uh nurses lauj los yog cov doctor los cov business women tej ntawd uh kuj muaj1-2 tug kuv hnov hais tias ua pastor thiab banker lauj los yog tias nws muaj ntau ntau yam li nav es hais tsis tas li nav, ces nws kuj muaj ntau yam ntau tus uas nws tuav dej num rau hauv office tej ntawd. Hm hm, uh kuv xav noog koj ib los ntxiv uh zoo li teb chaws no peb yog, peb cov hmoob peb yeej pom qhov tias txoj kev mus kawm ntawv no yog ib qho tseem ceeb heev tab sis peb muaj cov niam pog, muaj cov niam es laus lawm nav kawm tsi tau ntawv lawm nav, koj hais tias uh lawv yuav pab peb, lawm ho tseem ceeb li cas rau peb thiab uh, kuv hais tsi tau tab sis in english uh without education so much but what about those women who can’t learn english and who don’t know how to rewrite or they are not important but how what can they contribute to us? Uh cov laus los lawv, cov laus mas tseem ceeb kawg nkaws li rau qhov, nyob rau ntawm kuv tus kheej xwb mas kuv xav tias yog kuv tsi luaj kuv tus muam, wb tus sister es pab wb nav, zov wb tej me tub me nyuam nav txawm yog even though nws tsi paub ntaub paub ntawv los nws nyob hauv tesv nws ua volonteer zov wb tej me tub me nyuam,tu tej me tub me nyuam lub sij hawm wb ua hauj lwm ntawd, wb thiaj li ua tau hauj lwm los yug wb tsev neeg, mas cov laus mas tseem

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ceeb heev rau peb lub neej kuv xav hais tias kom peb cov hluas peb tsi txhob muab lawv cov laus turn out thawm ntawm peb, rau qhov hais tias yog muaj cov laus, qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog vim muaj lawv peb thiaj tau tuaj nyob lub teb chaws no, twb yog lawv coj peb tuaj mas peb yuav tsum zoo siab ua lawv tsaug hiab txawm yog lawv tsi txawj ntaub txawj ntawv los peb yuav tau tsum fwm lawv nav, fwm hais tias yog niam yog txiv los yog ib tug laus ntawm peb es peb yuav tau tsum ua peb lub neej kom zoo kom lawv prod rau peb kom lawv tau ntsej muag nav, lawv tsi txawj ntaub txawj ntawv los peb zoo siab hlo pab lawv es peb tsi txhob muab lawv tso cia peb yuav tau tsum uh txaus siab los txo fwj chim thiab los txhim kho peb lub neej kom peb thiab cov laus no sib haum xeeb es nyob tau ua ke, yog hais tias tsi muaj cov laus ces peb lub neej no yeej mus tsi taus thiab yeej yog muaj cov laus pab peb peb thiaj mus taus. I: K: Uh zoo, uh hm ok, koj puas muaj uh ib co lus ntxiv es kuv tsi tau noog koj thiab? Ok uh kuv xav tias peb hmoob yuav, peb hmoob uh cov ntxhais tej ntawd nav los yog tias cov poj niam tej ntawd nav, peb yuav tau tsum uh, kuv xav hais tias uh peb hmoob cov ntxhais los cov poj niam peb xav kom peb yuav tau tsum fwm peb niam peb txiv tej ntawd es tsuas yog, nco ntsoov hais tias peb tsi fwm peb niam peb txiv ces peb tej me tub me nyuam lawv hlob los lawv tsi txawj fwm peb es peb yuav tau tsum xyaum ua ib tug uh, coj ib tug cwj pwm kom zoo los yog peb yuav tsum xyaum ua ib tug real model kom zoo rau peb tej me tub me nyuam los yog kwv tij neej tsa zej zog tej ntawd es kom txhua leej txhua tus thiaj paub hais tias peb yog ib tug neeg zoo peb coj tau zoo es luag thiaj nav thwm peb hais tias peb yog ib tug thawj coj thiab even though yog peb yog ib tug thawj coj es peb tau ua ib teg dej teg num siab heev los yog tias peb tsis uh ua ib tug real model zoo rau peb tsev neeg ces los yog rau kwv tij neej tsa tej ntawd ces luag yeej saib tsi taus yus ces luag yeej xav tias yus yog ib tug neeg uas khav theeb thiab yus yog ib tug neeg uas khib oom tej ntawd xwb nav,ces lawv yeej saib tsi taus yus thiab, yuis yuav tau tsum nco nroov hais tias uh yus yog ib tug poj niam no yus yuav tau tsum uh qhuab qhia yus tej me nyuam kom tsim txiaj, yus yuav tsum ua ib tug neeg zoo yuav tsum hlub lwm leej lwm tus, yus yuav tau tsum nquag , yus yuav tau tsum lub neej uh kom mus kom kawg , yus yuav tau tsum tsi txhob hais tais yus ua yus lub neej nrog yus tus txiv, kuv hais cov uas yuav txiv lawm, yus tsi txhob ua neej nrog yus tus txiv txog ib tog xwb es uh yus yuav muab nws tso cia poj los yog hais tias tej zaum yus mus kawm ntaub kawm ntawv es yus txawj ntse lawm lo s yog tias yus ua tau ib teg dej num zoo es yus tus txiv tsi tau teg dej num zoo li yus thisb nws kawm ntawv tsi siab li yus no ces yus yuav nws saib tsi muaj nuj nqis, rau qhov hais tias peb muab peb tus txiv tsi muaj nuj nqis no ces uhpeb yeej tsi muaj lub koob lub npe nrog luag hu thiab peb yeej yog ib tug neeg tsi muaj nuj nqi ib yam nkaus yog vim peb muaj peb tus txiv es peb thiaj muaj nuj nqis thiab yog vim peb muaj peb muaj peb niam peb txiv peb thiaj li muaj nuj nqis ces peb yuav tau tsum saib cov laus kom rau nqi, saib yus tus txiv kom rau nqi es yus tsi txhob muab nws saib uh qis qis los yog muab nws, los yog saib tsi taus nws no mav uh yog li ntawd mas peb yuav tau tsum rau siab rau peb lub neej

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yuav tau tsum siab ntev tiag tiag li uh ib tug niam tsev nws hais rau kuv hais tias "ua ib tug neeg nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb no, koj siab ntev npaum li cas los koj yeej tuag tsi taus, yog hais tias koj ntev ntev es ib hnub koj ho tuag kiag lawm no los kom luag tej hais tias oh…tus niam no mas nus ntev dhau hwv lawm nws ci tuag lawm mas nws zoo dhau hwv lawm nav, ces yus yuav tau tsum ntev li ntev tau li, ntev ntev yus tuag lawm no los uh… yus kuj tau lub npe zoo ho yog hais tias yus ntev ntev es yus tsi tuag li no los yus tau koob hmoov zoo xwb es luag yuav hais tias oh… tus niam no mas siab ntev kawg nkaus li, nws nrog nws tsev neeg sib haum xeeb nws nrog kwv tij neej tsa zej zog sib haumyeej tsi muaj teeb meem dab tsi li nws yeej yog ib tug neeg coj tau tsev neeg zoo" no ces qhov no yog ib qho lus uas kuv xav faj rau peb cov niam tsev, peb cov poj niam los yog peb cov ntxhais hluas sawv daws uas tseem yuav hlob tseem yuav muaj peb lub neej kom peb yua tau tsum nco ntsoov hais tias siab ntev tiag tiag thiab hlub kwv tij neej tsa zej zog, hlub koj tsev neeg, muab uh, mob siab ua koj lub neej es kom koj lub neej thiaj li mus tau zoo. Ces kuv lus xaus kuv tsuas muaj li no xwb, ua tsaug. End conversation.

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